Flashcards in Exam IV: Autonomics Deck (40):
Inhibits RNA polymerase
If patient has respiratory tract infection and non compliant
Give azithromycin because only once daily
Broth dilution test, what MIC value has the greatest bacterial kill?
MIC: the smaller the better
Protein Synthesis Inhibitors
Macrolides and tetracycline, clindamycin, and erythromycins
Drug of choice for C diff
Drug of choice for lyme disease
What class of drugs has post antibiotic effect (PAE) and concentration killing rate (CDKR)?
Aminoglycosides = once daily dosing because have PAE because if falls below therapeutic range it still has effects
Patient dx with syphilis and non-compliant
IM benzapene penicillin, NEVER IV
Interaction with Coumadin with ciprofloxacin
Increased anti coagulation effect = quinolone
Cephalosporin that covers anaerobic infections (2nd generation)
Cefoxitin and Cefotetan
Best covers gram positive best, as well as streptococci?
Best gram negative coverage?
Gram positive/strep: Clarithromycin
Gram negative: Azithromycin
Alcoholic took this medication, and now vomiting
Metronidazole (administered orally or vaginally) can result in a disulfiram-like reaction characterized by flushing, tachycardia, palpitations, nausea, and vomiting
Blocks bacterial translation by reversibly binding to the 16S rRNA in the 30S subunit/ blocks protein synthesis
Most common way of microbial resistance
Break beta lactam ring of drug via beta lactamases (microbial enzymes)
What effects do Belladonna drugs have?
Cause mydriasis/eye dilation
Muscarinic receptor antagonists, undo cholinergic so used to treat sinus bradycardia given via IV
What is used to treat COPD?
Only depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agent (block ACh at nicotinic receptor)
What is used to treat pheochromocytoma?
Selective beta 1 blocker used to treat BPH
BPH also treated by doxazosin, alfuzosin, silodosin
Bronchodilator to treat asthma
Beta blocker for intraocular pressure for glaucoma patients
Timolol, only one that is an eye drop
Sympathetic NS Effects
Dilate pupils, decrease secretions, inhibits salivation, increase HR, inhibits bladder contraction, secretion of adrenaline, stimulates glucose production
Parasympathetic NS Effects
Contracts bladder, constricts pupil, stimulated bile release stimulates flow of saliva. constricts bronchi
Which is the primary neurotransmitter at post-ganglia junction for sympathetics
Increase HR and contractility
beta 1 receptors
Which medication blocks alpha and beta receptors
Labetalol beta 1 and beta 2, alpha 1 blocker decreases heart rate and blood pressure
Direct acting ACh agonist used for glaucoma on nicotinic and muscarinic
Which drug is used for lice?
Malathion prescription not over counter
Older male patient presents with BPH and ED, which drug would you prescribe?
Drugs used to treat Alzheimer's Disease
Rivostigmine, donepezil, galantamine to increase ACh in CNS
Indirect ACh receptor agonist
Which of the following is an effect of muscarinic receptor antagonist?
increase HR and bronchodilation
Basically cause sympathetic reactions
What can be used for IBS and spasms?
Hyoscyamine to decrease GI motility
What is used to treat overactive bladder?
Oxybutyin, tolterodine, darifenacin, solifenacin, and trospium
Decrease urination because anti cholinergic (cholinergic increases urination) and muscarinic antagonist (against parasympathetic, so sympathetic effects)
What drug that is a synthetic catecholamine muscarinic antagonist is used for bronchodilation?
Ipratropium and tiotropium are for bronchodilation; muscarinic antagonist; anti-cholinergic
Which synthetic muscarinic antagonist is used to increase mydriasis?
Which non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocker eliminated renally has the longest action?
What is synthetic adrenoceptor agonist?
Isoproterenol and dobutamine
Have a physician who wants to do open heart surgery: which one stimulates beta 1 and vasodilation of beta 2?