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Flashcards in Exam Partial 1 Deck (12):

Phrases for agreeing and disagreeing

When you write a response to a reading, you give your opinion, which includes those points you agree with and those points you disagree with. To be more sophisticated, use a variety of phrases to indicate your agreement or disagreement. It must make sense ( most of the time put that, the or about)


Phrases to agree

Be in agreement with
Concur with
Have the same opinion


Phrases to disagree

Object to
take issue with


Phrases for hedging (meaning)

You might not totally agree or disagree with what someone has said or written. In this case, you can use hedging phrases. These phrases can qualify your statement and make it seem less rude or offensive. On defense.


Phrases for hedging

*To introduce noun clauses: -It's possible that
-It's not impossible that
-I believe that
*To begin a sentence: -As some see it
-In general
-Strictly speaking
*Adverbs: -Almost always
-More or less
-(Not) necessarily


What is an adjective and adverb clause ?

Adjective clause reduces who which, that
Adverb clause reduces the time clauses like once, before, etc.


Avoiding dangling modifiers

The reduced adverbial and adjective clauses are also called modifiers because they modify or describe the subject in each independent clause. Make sure that the modifier has the same undelying subject as the independent clause. If it has a different subject, it's called a dangling modifier and can lead to misuderstandings
ex. - Writing down the address, the bus left me standing on the street.
+ Writing down the address, I was left on the street by the bus
A way to solve these is changing the voice (from active to passive or vice versa)


Combining sentences

It's important because it prevents choppy sentences. It's one of the most effective writing techniques you can practice.


Techniques for combining sentences

1. Use a series to combine three or more similar ideas.
2. Use a relative pronoun (who, whose, that, which). The sentence still makes sense without the relative pronoun.
3. Use an introductory phrase or clause for the less important ideas (when, as, because). Ex, Because the tornado...
4. Use a participial phrase (-ing, -ed) to begin or end a sentence. Ex, The ...., leaving a trail of...
5. Use a semicolon and also a conjuctive adverb if appropiate.
6. Repeat a key word or phrase to emphasize an idea, has to be a strong one. (ex, scar)
7. Use correlative conjuctions (not only---but also, either---or) to compare or contrast two ideas in a sentence.
8. Use an appositive (or an appositive phrase) for emphasis. It must make sense without the appositive. Ex, ..., a tornado that came without warning, ...



Two words that have the opposite meaning


Coordinators (coordinating conjuctions)



Compound sentences with conjuctive adverbs

Indepentent clause;+conjuctive adverb, +independent clause.
Ex of conjuctive adverbs are on the other hand, as a result and for example.