How many quotes should there be per paragraph?
Only two so you are actually putting your ideas.
What this an in text citation mean?
It means a minor sentence. a second minor sentence that explains the quote.
What can we incorporate outside sources into our Essays?
We can use brackets and ellipses.
...sentences of 9 Clauses. Use Correct punctuation. Your sentences must have at least a subject and a verb.
The short research paper
essays that often include other sources to support your thesis statement and main ideas. For that, you need to research and find what others have said and incorporate relevant information by paraphrasing, quoting or summarizing. your arguments must be convincing. Use transition sentences for more variation.
Organizing your paper
After Having your working thesis you can do this. Organizing ideas before writing helps:
1.organize your thoughts
2.show relationships between ideas
3.order the ideas logically
4.plan your research
5.write your first draft
What is a topic sentence?
A sentence that is clear and concise. It has a topic and a controlling idea.
Making an outline
Once you have your organizational pattern you can write it. Maybe they'll ask for it in formal places but often they're only for you to help with planning. example,
1. Working thesis
2. reason one
3. Reason two
4. Reason three
5. Reason 4
You will add or subtract information after research. This is a working outline.
Concrete support must
Directly related to the topic sentence and major sentence so It can be a minor sentence.
What is a working thesis?
it is a working thesis because you keep changing it. It's a topic plus a controlling idea.
It's information from outside sources such as books articles and websites that your insert into your essay to strengthen your arguments. Using this makes your Essay more convincing by adding facts, statistics and experts opinions.
Types of sourcing
APA for hard sciences (American Psychological Association)
MLA for social sciences or art (modern language arts Association)
Why are Notecards relevant?
1. Notecards help organize info
2. they only keep important information(main ideas)
3. Direct quotes that were going to use can be put
4. Words you may not use
5. Academic sophistication
They may be used for bibliographies or references
3 ways to insert concrete support into your writing
Summarizing, paraphrasing and Quotation
They're used for definitions to explain, define or clarify information that the reader might not understand Also there are used for extra info that is less relevant
Writing a working thesis
It's to further define your topic. It's called working because you will refine it as you do your research. You might change opinions about your topic. Yet, you need to start without a point of view. There should be different points of view about them. Ask yourself about each of your working ideas:
1. How much do I already know about this topic?
2. Do I have an opinion about it?
3. How interesting is it to me?
Writing the first draft
It's good to write it before you research. You research in order to find support for your ideas. If you write your own ideas first, you'll know where you need support. Also, it prevents plagiarism. It's only for you, don't worry about grammar, spelling and punctuation. You can write it however you want.
The organization of the introduction paragraph
-hook(historical bakcground or general to specific. Develop it!)
-transition sentence (3-4 sentences)
-Thesis statement (no predictors)
Avoiding Bias in your writing
Use unbiased language on your essay, so you don't offend anyone. They're minor vocab differences that can make a huge impact. Bias language includes labeling and sexist language.
Avoiding labeling language
Only refer to a person's race, ethnicity, disability or age if it's necessary to the content of your essay. Write as there are no differenes among people. When it's necessary to refer to a person's ethnicity. Chinese American, Korean American, Mexican American, Cuban American and African American are fine. However ative Americans prefer their tribe's name, blacks is also accepted and white too. When you need to comment on a person's physical or mental impairment use the term disabled(refers to a person's attribute) instead of "handicapped" (refers to the acivity a person cannot do because of a disability) Ex. A person who is blind can still learn to play the violin, the person is disabled but not handicapped.
Avoid sexist language
One problem that arises when people write in Eglish is the use of the singular third-person pronouns (he, his, him) to refer to a person of unkown gender. Ex. When a student arrives late, he interrupts the class. It is seen as sexist nowadays. He/she, he or she or S/he can be used but they're impractical. A way to avoid this problem is to use plural nouns for people in general. Ex. When students arrive late, they interrupt the class. Another problem is the names of common professions. At first, they were only man, but now, it's both. Ex. congressman-senator or representative.
How to write a book in APA
Last name, initial name. (year). Book title. Place of publication: Publisher.
How to write a magazine in APA
Author Last name, initial name. (year, month day). Title of article. Name of magazine, volume number, pages.
Title of article. (year, month day). Name of magazine, volume number, pages.
How to write a web site in APA
Last name, initial name. (posting date). title of page. Retrieved month day, year from URL
How to write a book in MLA
Last name, initial name. Book title. Place of publication: publisher, year.
How to write a magazine in MLA
Last name, initial name. "Title of article." Name of magazine day month year: pages
How to write a website in MLA
"title of page." Name of web site. Posting date. acces date
Things that never change in essays (elevation of the tree system)
1. Indent paragraph
2. Double space
3. times new roman
4. Justify text
8 Parts of speech (PAPACINV)
Guidelines for choosing a piece of concrete support
1. Carefully consider the source
a)Newspapers: Use well known ones. Online versions are the same as hardcopies.
b)Magazines: Use well known ones. Online versions are the same as hardcopies.
c) Journals: Academic journals are credible, but they may be very technical. Online versions are the same as hardcopies.
d) Websites: Be extra critical and skeptical about the credibility of documents that you find on the Web. Ask yourself these questions:
i. What is the source? If you cannot find one, do not use the site.
ii. If you can fist the source, it it trustworthy?
-University publications are usually trustworthy
-Government documents may or may not be
-Blogs, are not always reliable. Make sure the author is an exért in the field before using his/her opinions.
2. Do not use information that is older than five years.
3. Choose a passage that directly supports your point. 4. Do not take passage out of context.
5. Do not use more thatn two pieces of concrete support in one paragraph. It should be mostly your own words.
6. Do not choose a passage that is too technical or field-specific for your reader to understand.
-Main points of the passage are enough to support your ideas
-The original words are special or unique
-The quote will have a greater impact in your paper
-You want to prove that th eperson you are quoting actually made the statement.
-Passages are 1-3 sentences long
-The complete passage is relevant to your point
-The information is more important than the way in which the idea is expressed.
Checking the organization
a) Does it have a hook that grabs the reader's attention?
b) Is there a transition from your hook to your thesis statement?
c) Is the thesis statement placed at the end of the introduction?
d) Is the thesis statement the main idea of your paper?
2. Body parahraphs
a)Is each paragraph well organizaed with a topic sentence and supporting sentences?
b) Are there transitions between the body paragraphs?
3. The order of your ideas
a)Have you presented your ideas in the most effective way?
b) Are they ordered in concurrence with the organizational pattern that you are using?
4. Your concluding paragraph
a) Have you signaled your conclusing paragraph
b) Have you done one of the following?
i. Restatement of the thesis statement
ii. Summarized body paragraphs
iii. Made a final comment
c) Have you avoided adding any new ideas?
d) Have you avoided adding any unnecessary details?
Checking the content
1. The logic and legitimacy of your arguments
a) Do your arguments make sense?
b) Are enough of them suppoerted by outside sources?
c) Do any ideas need more outside support?
d) Are the sources well chosen?
e) Is the support truly relevant?
2. The unity of your paragraphs
a) Are there any irrelevant ideas in your paragraph?
b) Does each sentence add to the explanation and support of the paragraph?
c)Are there any redundancies? (Ideas repeated unnecessarily)
3. Your concrete support
a) Have you included all of the main ideas in your summaries?
b)Have you maintained the meaning of phrases?
c) Have you used your own words and style in your summaries?
d) Have you copied your quotes correctly?
e) Have you cited each piece of concrete support?
Your essay must function as on ein writing. It will flow and there will be no trouble reading it. Using plenty of transitions (such as transition words, phrases, sentences and paragraphs).
used to connect one section of the essay with another section.