Flashcards in Exam Q&A Deck (28)
What is the mass of Protons, Neutrons and Electrons?
Protons - 1
Neutrons - 1
Electrons - Negligible
What are the charges on protons, neutrons and electrons?
Protons - Positive
Neutrons - No charge
Electrons - Negative
What are isotopes?
Different forms of the same element with a different number of neutrons but the same number of protons and electrons - They have the same chemical properties and the same atomic number
What is the atomic number?
The number of protons in an atom
What is the mass number?
The number of protons AND neutrons in an atom
How many electrons do group 3 elements have on their outer shell?
The group number is...
The number of electrons on an atom's outer shell
What is an ion?
A charged particle
How does a particle become an ion?
They lose or gain electrons
Ionic bonding happens between...
A metal and a non-metal
If an atom loses 2 electrons, what charge will it have?
If an atom gains 2 electrons, what charge will it have?
In a covalent bond, electrons are...
Covalent bonding happens between..
What are covalent bonds called?
What are the three main states of matter?
Solid, liquid and gas
What is the process of a solid turning into a gas called?
What is the process of a gas turning into a solid called?
It is made up of a single element or compound
What are the properties of ionic compounds?
Tight, lattice-like structure
High melting point due to very strong attraction between positive and negative ions
Cannot conduct electricity as a solid - no delocalised electrons
Can conduct electricity as a liquid - ions are free to move
What are the properties of graphite?
3 covalent bonds held together by weak forces, 1 in 4 electrons delocalised, no bonds between layers making it soft and slippery, has a very high melting point, can conduct electricity
What are the properties of diamond?
4 covalent bonds, very strong bond, regular structure, high melting point (3550), no delocalised electrons so cannot conduct electricity
What are fullerenes and their properties?
Molecules of carbon shaped like closed tubes or hollow balls - high melting and boiling points, black, solid, odourless
What colours are litmus as a acid and alkali?
Acid - red
Alkali - blue
What colour does phenolphthalein turn when it comes in contact with an alkali?
Methyl orange is red up to what number on the pH scale, then what happens?
At 4.5, it turns from red to yellow
Metal + Acid ------
Salt + Hydrogen