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Flashcards in exam two Deck (44):

The First Red Scare

A “Red Scare” refers to the widespread panic through America's population and government caused by the seeming major threat Communists pose to American society.
Post world war one, the Red Scare of 1919, organizations such as the National Security League and American Protective League attacked whomever they saw as "radicals." The actions of these organizations primarily consisted of planning and executing attacks on members of the Industrial Workers of the World labor union, those openly discussing liberal policies and ideology, eastern and southern European immigrants, and mostly, Socialists both in and out of political office and left-leaning party members


The Palmer Raids

A. Mitchell Palmer, attorney general, took this opportunity to organize a full-fledged assault on the “Reds.” He appointed J. Edgar Hoover to head his Radical Division, later known as the General Intelligence Division, of the attorney general’s office, and together, they made it their life's goal to vigorously investigate and deport immigrants. On January 2nd and 3rd, 1920, Palmer and Hoover organized simultaneous raids on the establishments and homes of presumed radicals, arresting more than three-thousand Ukrainians, Jews, Lithuanians, Russians, Poles, and others. Later known as the Palmer Raids, the actions of Mitchell and Hoover further solidified the anti-immigrant sentiment already stirring in the hearts and minds of the American people.


The Great Migration

The demand for unskilled workers in the industrial capitals of the North instigated what is now known as the Great Migration. By 1916, there was little to no steady flow of European immigrants arriving in the United States due to the Great War, so to fill unwanted, labor-intensive jobs, labor agents and recruiters flocked to the South actively seeking out African American men, women, and their families. Life in the South was so miserable for many African Americans due to Jim Crow laws and sharecropping, that moving north seemed like a no brainer


Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association (UNIA)

Marcus Garvey, and in turn, the Universal Negro Improvement Association, first and foremost believed that blacks should be intensely proud to be black, and because one is so proud of their heritage, one should preserve their culture by only reproducing with other African Americans. He disdained any outwardly black organization that was financially supported by whites, and he brutally criticized the way light-skinned African Americans utilized their lighter skin tone for political, economic, or social gain. By 1922, he became a cause of division in the black community and practically every African American leader had come out in opposition to him. Setting his failures aside, Marcus Garvey and the UNIA embodied many African Americans disappointment with the aftermath of World War I, the importance of racial pride, the significance of blacks working with whites, and the impressions a mass movement can make on other’s consciousness.


The Second Ku Klux Klan

The Klan’s priorities were “education, temperance, the flag, Protestantism, and charity.”
“Law and Order”: the need for enforcement of Prohibition—violators were of Catholic and Jewish background, and many were involved with organized crime
Prohibition was important to the new Klan because it further protects the sanctity of the “pure woman” that Protestantism demands, and the KKK openly viewed itself as an agent of moral reform.
It was ironic because the Klan and the Catholic Church having similar ideas about 1920s America


National Origins Act of 1924

National Origins Act of 1924 sharply restricted the number of immigrants allowed to enter the U.S., and it also set immigration quotas for each European nation.
By percentage (2-3%)******


Why was prohibition a progressive issue?

Because alcoholism ran rampant through immigrants and the poor and they believed that prohibition would solve that problem***
many believed that alcohol undercut the outcome of the worker, but it was always about someone else's temperance, not one's own


Why was it difficult for “wets” to organize?

The wets didn't have the same "moral ring" around them that drys did which appealed to the conservative masses
There was also the massive anti-german sentiment surrounded breweries in particular due to the impact of world war one***


How did WWI impact prohibition?

Anti-German sentiment
Men were lynched, sourkraut was thrown away, LOTS of anti-german propaganda in media
So, naturally, people viewed treason and beer as the same thing


What was the immediate impact of prohibition?

Fifth largest industry in the US was now gone, SO many jobs were lost***


1928 Presidential Campaign: why did it become a campaign of bigotry and hatred? How did radio play a role? How did it show the divisions between the city and the countryside?

Hoover led the "Food Adminstration" during WWI, helping Americans who couldnt fight over seas feel much more patriotic
Al Smith was an Irish Catholic liberal who did not appeal to the conservative south and rural
Al Smiths voice on the radio backfired on him. He sounded like a big city man with a raspy voice which did not appeal to the general masses
The city was wet (Al Smith) rural was dry (Hoover), liberal vs conservative


Alfred E. Smith: background and beliefs

Irish Catholic first genreation American who grew up in the immigrant heavy lower east side of NYC. Became the Mayor of NYC, then gov of NY, known for being a progressive reformer


The Lavander Scare

Don't be gay in the FBI
They felt that you could be blackmailed into selling secrets to the Soviet Union
At this time, it was "illegal" to be gay


The Smith Act

1940- it was illegal to be a member of an organization that seeks to overthrow the federal government
translates into if yourea a part of an orgazication that was seen as "submersive", youre a threat tto the federal government (communist party, black panthers, NAACP)


The Federal Loyalty Program

Investigate federal employees for ties to communism
people were dismissed for alcoholism, drug use, high debt, other money problems, and homosexuality
All things that could lead to morality issues and be subject to blackmail
16,000 investigated, 2,900 resigned, 379 dismissed


The Rosenbergs

Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, a married couple with children, were both convicted of espionage, executed in June 1953
There was proof of Julius committing espionage, but not Ethel. The federal government executed her anyway.


Containment Policy

containing communism out of the US**


Marshall Plan

rebuild western Europe post-war (so no one had to turn to communism to restore, AND these countries will be buying American shit after their economy rebuilds)



accelerate the arms race
a grand overview of suggested policy towards the Soviet Union and the communist world.



accelerate the arms race
a grand overview of suggested policy towards the Soviet Union and the communist world.


New Look Foreign Policy

Farewell Address- beware of the "military-industrial complex"
Too costly to fight the U.S.S.R. all over the world: instead, rely on “massive retaliatory powers” (buildup of nuclear weapons) and Covert Action (the CIA would launch covert action operations against any government that had ties or perceived ties to communism)


What challenges faced the Arevalo and Arbenz administrations in Guatemala?

UFCO wants to make a monopoly in Guatemala


What were the ties between UFCo and the Eisenhower administration?

Eisenhower saw the coupe in Guatemala as a great success, when really the duelles bros ***


Why did the U.S. and Cuba experience a break in diplomatic relations?

Agrarian Reform Law: seizes 400 of the largest estates in cuba (including his own mother's and redistributes it to the poor without compensation)
Lowered Utility Rates: impacting American utility companies
Cuban-Soviet Trade Agreement/Oil and Sugar leading to Operation Zapata and Bay of Pigs
October 1960 U.S. economic embargo
Castro nationalized all American-owned businesses
U.S. severed diplomatic relations January 1961


How has Cuban migration impacted Miami?

Approximately 135,000 Cubans arrived in Miami between January 1959 and April 1961
According to the 2010 census, Miami has the largest foreign born population in the U.S. (60%)
As of 2010, 69.96% of Miami’s population identifies as Latino (Cuban population is 34.14%)


Operation Zapata/Bay of Pigs Invasion: goals and results

Operation Zapata (March 1960): the CIA poured personnel, money, and equipment into South Florida and began to train a secret army of almost 1,500 exiles for an invasion of Cuba (Brigade 2506)
Brigade 2506 (April 17, 1961) landed in Cuba: high- ranking CIA officials and other policy makers believed Cubans would rise up and join the invaders


Operation Mongoose

Covert operation of the Central Intelligence Agency that was commissioned in March 1960 during the final year of President Dwight D. Eisenhower's administration.
Undermine Castro***


Cuban Missile Crisis: Kennedy’s response and the naval quarantine



Cuban Missile Crisis: Fidel’s letter



Cuban Middle Crisis: Results



What was Arbenz’s agrarian reform policy? Why did the U.S. government protest this policy?

seize about 225,000 acres of unused United Fruit Company land. Of all lands expropriated (taken), two thirds belonged to United Fruit. In return the company was to receive the woefully inadequate compensation of $600,000 in long-term non-negotiable agrarian bonds
The UFCo undervalued the land they owned to evade taxes, so they screwed themselves over


Operation PBSuccess: goals and results

Destabilize the Guatemalan Government and overthrow for business reasons***


Sources 5 and 6 from the Cold War reading

Eisenhower believes what the US did in Guatemala was a huge success, and without US interference the country would have succumbed to communism
Philip C. Roettinger, former CIA operative, says "I now think my involvement in the overthrow of Arbenz was a terrible mistake. The reasons the Eisenhower administration gave were false; the consequences were disastrous." Dulles exhorted [advised] us to do our jobs well and told us the same lie Ronald Reagan is telling the people today: The purpose of the U.S. support for the rebels is to stop the spread of communism.
But communism was not a threat we were fighting. The threat was land reform. Fulfilling a pledge to
Philip C. Roettinger was a former member of the CIA and an active participant in the Guatemalan coup in 1954. Roettinger helped trained Guatemalan rebels in Honduras to overthrow the Arbenz government. In the following passage, Roettinger discusses his overall feelings about the operation. transform Guatemala into a “modern capitalist state,” Arbenz had taken over some unused land
belonging to the United Fruit Company. The Boston-based company, which considered its rights superior to those of Guatemalans, retaliated with a publicity campaign to paint Guatemala red [Communist]....
I have grown up. I only wish my government would do the same.


Teenage Culture in the 1950s: how was it different than previous generations?



Contents vs Discontents

Contents (conservatives) saw this time as one of the best in history
Discontents (liberals) hated everything about the 50's


Baby Boom

1940's to 1960
romantic effects of WWII (goodbye babies, quick courtship) and practical reasons (increased $$ from gov, population decrease)


Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944 (GI Bill of Rights)

education benifits
housing allowance
food allowance
low interest mortgage loans
ALL led to increase in middle class


suburbia: Good or Bad?

Positive: easy availability and low cost
Negative: Economic and racial homogeny, Archetectural similarity


How did World War Two impact Mexican Americans?

300,000 Mexican Americans served, came home to the same discrimination even though they risked their lives for their country
Much more animocity and entitlement, created a building resentment


Hernandez v. Texas

Mexican Americans were a "special class" entitled to equal protection under the 14th Amendment.


The Bracero Program

Treaty between US and Mexico that allowed Mexican nationals to come to the US on temporary labor contracts in agriculture and railways


Edward R. Murrow’s Harvest of Shame

Exposed the conditions on farms and what 3rd world squalor looked like in the US


Coalition of Immokalee Workers

First their goal was to enforce fairness and workers rights on the fields, but now their goal is to get the major corporations to buy their products
Next, they will be moving into five other states in the south east and Bell peppers in florida


`Fair Food Program

Add a penny per pound to tomatoes in this sense, but to also reform agriculturla fields and protect the migrant farm worker