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Flashcards in examination of the newborn Deck (29):
1

Describe erythema toxicum

Lesions distributed all over body (palms and soles spared) and lasts few days, child is otherwise well
- central papule surrounded by erythema

2

treatment for erythema toxicum

Nil

3

Where do blue spots typically occur

dark blue/purple macular lesions on sacrum, buttocks or lower limbs usually in dark skinned individuals and usually fades in 4 years

4

lifespan of haemangioma

will get larger, darker and raised over first few months then may shrink by 1 year

5

lifespan of salmon patch/angel kiss

red/pink light lesion on forehead between eyebrows and may change colour over time- nothing to worry about

6

lifespan of portwine stain and associations

won't fade over time, can use laser therapy to some effect
may be associated with sturge-weber syndrome (epilepsy)

7

management of cleft lip and palate

surgery is primary treatment to establish normal facial anatomy and feeding function

8

characteristics of Down's Syndrome

flattened nasal bridge
epicanthic folds
flat occiput
floppy infant

9

what is talipes and what are the different types

the sole of the foot is turned medially and the foot is inteverted
can b positional or postural

10

Management of talipes

corrective splinting, taping and casting

11

what is developmental dysplasia of the hip

Abnormal relationship between the femoral head and acetabulum in the developing hip in otherwise healthy infants

12

how does hip dysplasia present

- frank dislocation
- subluxation
- instability
- dysplasia of femoral head

13

what specific examinations might you undertake for hip dysplasia and the findings

Barlow manoeuvre: examiner adducts hip while applying a posterior force on the knee to promote dislocation
Ortolani sign- examiner abducts the hip while applying an anterior force on the femur to reduce the hip joint

14

Mx of hip dysplasia

infants before walking age: flexion-abduction splinting
if identified later (6m-2 years) may require closed reduction and immobilisation
>18m need open reduction

15

associations with hip dysplasia

-Larsen syndrome
-Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
- Down's syndrome

16

which congenital condition is associated with ambiguous genitalia

CAH- monogenic autosomal recessive disorder resulting in inadequate cortisol +/- aldosterone synthesis

17

symptoms of salt-wasting crisis in aldosterone deficiency

lethargy, vomiting, hyponatraemia, hyperkalaemia, dehydration and hypovolaemic shock esp. in male neonate

18

treatment of CAH

fluid resus
corticosteroids
fludrocortisone
NaCl
clitoroplasty

19

what is spina bifida

common and treatable congenital spinal cord malformation resulting from a defect in neural tube development

20

risk factors for spina bifida

-maternal folate deficiency
- exposure in early pregnancy to excessive heat (fever, sauna)
-certain medications (carbamezapine, valproic acid, methotrexate)

21

pre-natal screening for spina bifida

- maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein level
- USS
- amniocentesis

22

Mx of spina bifida

antibiotics to prevent CNS infection
urgent surgical closure within 24-48 hours of birth

23

characteristics of cephalohaematoma

subperiosteal haemorrhage- never extends across suture line, often caused by traumatic delivery
usually resolves in 6 weeks no sequelae

24

common complications of shoulder dystocia

neonatal clavicle fracture
brachial plexus injury- Erb's palsy

25

When can vitamin K deficient bleeding disorder occur

- early onset haemorrhagic disease within first few days of life
- late onset at 4-6 weeks old

26

Causes of jaundice within first 24 hours of life

haemolysis
sepsis

27

aetiology of physiological jaundice

as a product of foetal red blood cell breakdown and low hepatic activity due to low glucuronyl transferase

28

why are breastfed babies more likely to have physiological jaundice

due to beta-glucuronidase in breast milk which uncouples bilirubin from glucuronic acid to be reabsorbed in the gut lumen

29

complications of high unconjugated bilirubin

kernicterus- cerebral palsy, deafness