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Flashcards in Preterm birth Deck (15):
1

define preterm birth

<37 weeks

2

antenatal risk factors

multiple pregnancies
fetal growth
maternal factors- PIH, diabetes
APH
PROM/SROM,
chorioamnioitis
fetal distress

3

why can neonates not control their temperature

large surface area to body weight ratio and immature skin with absence of fat
- neonates don't shiver and non-shivering thermogenesis is impaired

4

what is the cut off for viability

24 weeks- at this point the alveoli and vascularisation are complete

5

examination findings with patent ductus arteriosus

prominent pulses with systolic/diastolic murmur
- USS dopplers may show absent or reversed diastolic flow in mesenteric artery

6

treatment for PDA

ibuprofen/indomethacin followed by surgical ligation

7

what is necrotising enterocolitis characterised by

inflammation and necrosis of the intestine with a predilection for terminal ileum
typically in 2nd-3rd week of life of prem baby

8

risk factors for nec

prematuriy
asphyxia
polycythaemia
PDA
enteral/artificial feeds

9

clinical manifestations of nec

-intolerance to feeds
-distended tender abdomen
-signs and symptoms of sepsis
-vomiting, diarrhoea, delayed gastric emptying, ileus
- systemic signs: apnoea, lethargy, shock, CVS collapse

10

Diagnosis of Nec

AXR- fixed distended bowel loops

11

Treatment of nec

stop enteral feeds
initiate broad spec abx
some evidence for probiotics

12

what is retinopathy of prematurity

disorder of retinal vascularisation primarily occurs at extremely low birthweight insants

13

when does retinal vascularisation begin and when is it complete

begins at 14 weeks from optic disc to periphery and becomes fully mature at term

14

risk factors for ROP

prematurity
hyperoxia- downregulates VEGF causing blood vessels to constrict
-fluctuation in oxygenation

15

Mx of ROP

Avoid o2 sats >95%
screen by examination of peripheral retina if <32weeks
can undergo cryo/laser therapy to prevent retinal detachment