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Flashcards in Perinatal brain damage Deck (15):
1

describe cerebral palsy

non-progressive disorder of movement and posture caused by injury to the immature brain

2

what is birth asphyxia

Interruption in oxygen delivery to the fetus severe enough to produce
-delayed onset of breathing
- bradycardia/asystole and decreased CO
- metabolic acidosis on cord blood analysis
-impaired muscle tone and reflexes
- cardiac arrest

3

how is birth asphyxia recognised

APGAR score <=5 at 10 minutes with cord gas pH <7.15

4

Processes that cause brain cell death after re-oxygenation at a macro level

- prolonged hypotension due to poor cardiac output
- prolonged hypoglycaemia
- prolonged epileptic activity

5

cellular processes that cause brain-cell death after re-oxygenation

- free radical damage
- calcium influx
- excitotoxic amino acids e.g. glutamate, aspartate
-apoptosis

6

common brain injury in full term infants

Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy

7

treatment for HIE

Total body cooling by cooling jacket for 72hours at 33.5 degrees C

8

causes of brain injury in preterm infants

- intraventricular haemorrhage
- periventricular leucomalacia

9

When does intraventricular haemorrhage occur and what is it

at 24-32 weeks gestation
vascular germinal matrix with fragile blood vessels and fluctuating cerebral blood flow resulting in perforated blood vessels and bleeding

10

how to reduce the risk of IVH

prenatal maternal steroids

11

complications of IVH

- post haemorrhagic hydrocephalus
- death

12

how does post haemorrhagic hydrocephalus injure the immature brain

- pressure
- distortion
- oedema
- free radicals
-inflammation

13

Management of severe IVH

Ventriculoperitoneal shunt at term
DRIFT- washing out the ventricles to remove neurotoxins

14

Periventricular leucomalacia
- what is it
- risk factors
- prevention

- white matter damage
- ischaemia and inflammation
- prenatal MgSO4

15

Benefits of prenatal MgSO4

Neuroprotective effect- 40% reduction in cerebral palsy