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Care of the newborn > infections in the newborn > Flashcards

Flashcards in infections in the newborn Deck (16):
1

define early onset sepsis and how is it acquired

sepsis presenting <48hrs after birth
Acquired from mother's birth canal (intrapartum)

2

What are the 3 most common bacteria in early onset sepsis

- group B strep
- E.coli
- Listeria Monocytogenes

3

What are risk factors for early onset sepsis

Obstetric: PROM, Preterm delivery, intrapartum fever
GBS bacteriuria
Previous infant with GBS disease

4

complications of early onset sepsis

- bloodstream infection --> DIC
- Pneumonia
- meningitis

5

Presentation of meningitis in the newborn

non-specific signs
- irritability
- seizures

6

sequelae of neonatal meningitis

deafness, hydrocephalus, poor neurodevelopment

7

Management and treatment of neonatal GBS

Investigations: bloods, cultures, clotting, lumbar puncture
Appropriate abx - benzylpenicillin & gent followed by targeted therapy to culture
CSF coverage if suspect meningitis- cefotaxime (10-14d)

8

Define late onset sepsis and how is it acquired

Sepsis presenting >48hrs after birth usually acquired in hospital

9

How might a neonate get infected with Coag -ve staphylococcus

It can produce a biofilm that sticks to plastic- if a neonate has lines/cannulas etc

10

How is coag -ve staph infection treated

Broad spectrum initially-flucloxacillin & gentamicin
Targeted therapy following culture

11

What organism is the commonest cause of nappy rash and how is it treated

Candida
Treated with local nystatin or miconazole- can use oral treatment too

12

What is the pathogenesis of nec

injury to the mucosa,
substrate for bacteria to multiply in the gut
invasion of the gut wall by bacteria
ileus & perforation

13

How can Hep B be transmitted to babies and how might it be prevented

Vertical transmission during labour (risk about 40%)
Prevention
-If no Hep B e antibodies: Hep B vaccine (4 doses) and Hep B ig (1 dose)
-if Hep B e antibodies: Hep B vaccine (4 dose)

14

How can HIV be transmitted to babies and how can it be prevented

Vertical transmission- transplacental, during labour, breast milk (risk about 25%)
Prevention using anti-retroviral drugs in pregnancy and labour, deliver via c-section and avoid breast feeding

15

classic findings of congenital infections (TORCH)

symmetrical growth restriction
hepatosplenomegaly
thrombocytopenia
rash

16

What does TORCH stand for

Toxoplasmosis
Other (syphilis, VZV, parvovirus B19)
Rubella
CMV
Herpes simplex