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1

there are 4 main assumptions of the biological model to explain behaviour, what are they?

Brain structure
Infection
Genetics
Biochemistry

2

what does brain structure mean?

if the structure of the brain is damaged or abnormal is any way, then abnormal behaviour can occur. E.g. enlarged ventricles in people with schizophrenia

3

What does infection mean?

exposure to virus while in the womb may lead to abnormal behaviour, e.g.e exposure to flu virus in he 2nd trimester can lead to an increased chance of schizophrenia.

4

what does genetics mean?

The closer you are related to someone with a disorder, the greater the chance of developing it. Twin studies show evidence of this as MZ (identical) twins have a higher concordance rate that DZ twins

5

what does biochemistry mean?

neurotransmitters are imbalanced in the nervous system in the brain, E.g. excessive amounts of dopamine are associated with schizophrenia.

6

Name a strength and explain it of the biological explanations

It doesn't blame the individual for the disorder. The concept of "no blame" is thought to be humane and likely to elicit a sympathetic response from others as the person suffering is in need of help not punishment. There is still a negative stigma attached to mental illness, sympathy may result in avoidance as people do not understand it and therefore fear, this sympathy may leave the person feeling shunned.

7

Name and explain the supporting evidence for the biological explanations

McGuffin: it was found that there was a 46% concordance in MZ twins compared to 20% in DZ twins for depression. This suggests that there is a genetic component in depression. Much of this evidence, however, is inconclusive. There is a lack of absolute prediction, meaning that if depression was solely due to genetics the concordance rates would be 100%, at they are not, it means other factors may be effecting the development of the disorder, e.g. the environment. A cause and effect re;relationship cannot be established.

8

One limitation of the biological explanation for abnormality is it is reductionist- explain this point

It reduces the explanations down to over-simplistic terms. It fails to consider the roles of other factors. This means the explanation is incomplete.

9

what is the other limitation-explain it also

the responsibility is placed upon professionals for the recovery of the patient. Patients become passive in their treatment due to thinking it is not their fault so hand their wellness over to professionals and not feeling responsible for their own recovery.This lowers recovery rates.

10

What 3 drugs are involved in the biochemical treatment for abnormality?

anti-anxiety
antidepressant
antipsychotic

11

describe the anti-anxiety drug

minor tranquilizers that have a calming effect on the nervous system and enhance the neurotransmitter called GABA that acts to calm brain activity.

12

describe the antidepressant drug?

these improve mood by increasing the availability of sertonin

13

describe the antipsychotic drug?

major tranquilizers sedate and alleviate hallucinations and delusions in people with schizophrenia. They work by reducing the effect of dopamine.

14

describe the antipsychotic drug?

major tranquilizers sedate and alleviate hallucinations and delusions in people with schizophrenia. They work by reducing the effect of dopamine.

15

what is the second treatment used to treat severe depression called and what does it involve?

ECT- patient lies on the bed with loose clothing on, an electrode is fixed to their heads and an electric current is passed through the brain, the current brings on convulsions that last for 1 minute, when the patient comes round they remember nothing about the treatment. This is normally given 2 or 3 times a week.

16

what is the second treatment used to treat severe depression called and what does it involve?

ECT- patient lies on the bed with loose clothing on, an electrode is fixed to their heads and an electric current is passed through the brain, the current brings on convulsions that last for 1 minute, when the patient comes round they remember nothing about the treatment. This is normally given 2 or 3 times a week.

17

what is a strength of drug treatments?

they are effective in relieving the symptoms of mental disorders. E.g. before phenothiazines were introduced, people with schizophrenia were put into institutions. It allows people with mental health issues to be treated ethically and effectively and supports the idea that abnormality is biological in nature.

18

what is a strength of drug treatments?

they are effective in relieving the symptoms of mental disorders. E.g. before phenothiazines were introduced, people with schizophrenia were put into institutions. It allows people with mental health issues to be treated ethically and effectively and supports the idea that abnormality is biological in nature.

19

what is a strength of ECT?

it is an effective short term treatment for severe treatment. 60%-70% patients show improvement after it. It provides an alternative for antidepressant drugs if they have not worked and can save the life of a person at risk of suicide. It provides evidence that depression is correlated with biological abnormality.

20

what is a strength of ECT?

it is an effective short term treatment for severe treatment. 60%-70% patients show improvement after it. It provides an alternative for antidepressant drugs if they have not worked and can save the life of a person at risk of suicide. It provides evidence that depression is correlated with biological abnormality.

21

what is a weakness of using drug treatment?

All drugs have side effects e.g. a side effect of taking phenothiazines are having Parkinson's disease, so many schizophrenics refuse to take them. Many drugs carry a high risk of dependency. The decision has to be made whether the benefits outweigh the side effects.

22

Is ethical issues a weakness?

Yes, drug treatment and ECT should only be given to those who have given their full informed consent wherever possible. The illness may make this difficult however, so someone else has to make the decision in the persons best interest this takes away the persons freedom to choice. Some may not understand what they are saying yes to.

23

Is ethical issues a weakness?

Yes, drug treatment and ECT should only be given to those who have given their full informed consent wherever possible. The illness may make this difficult however, so someone else has to make the decision in the persons best interest this takes away the persons freedom to choice. Some may not understand what they are saying yes to.

24

Explain the weakness of "they only treat the symptoms not the cause"

If a person stops treatment, and then has a relapse, it could be because of the permanent biochemical problem. t could also be because of the environmental factors e.g. stress. This is a weakness because the drug cannot find the root of the problem so will manifest in another illness.