Flashcards in Explorers and Discoverers Deck (44):
Labrador, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and New England ca. A.D. 1000. They named their settlements Helluland, Markland and Vineland.
Prince Henry the Navagator
(1394-1460) Great Portuguese patron of exploration; expeditions financed by Henry explored the Madeiras, the Azors, the Canaries and the West African Coast.
First to pass the Cape of Good Hope, 1488, for Portugal.
Italian (Genoa); discovered America for Spain, 1492. He made four voyages and discovered many of the major Caribbean islands (Cuba, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Hispaniola). Born Cristopher Colombo; known in Spanish as Cristoforo Colon.
Italian (Venetian); Newfoundland or Nova Scotia, northeast coast of North America, for England, 1497-98. Cabot was born Giovanni Caboto.
Vasco da Gama
Portuguese; First to reach India, 1498, for Portugal.
Portuguese; Discovered Barzil, for Portugal, 1513.
Vasco Nunez de Balboa
Spanish; First European to lead an expidition to have seen or reached the Pacific from the New World, for Spain, 1513.
Spanish; Conquered Aztec Empire of Mexico, for Spain, 1519.
Portuguese; First circumnavigation of the globe, for Spain, 1519-1520. Expedition discovered Straits of Magellan and the Philippines, where Magellan was killed (Battle of Mactan). His crew finished the voyage afterward.
Italian (Florence); Discovered New York harbor, for France, 1524. The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge connecting Brooklyn and Staten Island across the mouth of New York harbor is named for him.
Spanish; Conquered Inca Empire of Peru, for Spain, 1524. Was with Balboa on expedition to Pacific.
French; Discovered Gulf of St. Lawrence, etc., for France, 1532. Named Canada.
Hernando de Soto
Spanish; Discovered the Mississippi River (by land), for Spain, 1539-41. Captain under Pizarro in conquest of Peru.
Francisco de Coronado
Spanish; Led expedition across much of what is now the southwest United States, for Spain, in search of Cibola, the Seven Cities of Gold, 1540.
Samuel de Champlain
French; Canada and Lake Champlain, for France, 1603-1609. "The Father of New France"
English; Discovered Hudson River, for Dutch East India Company; Discovered Hudson Bay, for England, 1609-10, while searching for northwest passage. Crew mutinied in 1611.
Jacques Marquette, Louis Joliet
French (Laon, Quebec); Explored the Northern Mississippi River, for France, 1673.
Sieur de La Salle
French; Explored the length of the Mississippi, for France, 1682; Laid claim to all lands touching the river, which he called Louisiana for King Louis XIV.
Danish; Explored the northern Pacific and the Aleutian Islands, for Russia, 1728, 1741.
English; Three voyages of exploration across the Pacific for Britain, 1768-79. He discovered the east coast of Australia, was the first to sail across the Antarctic Circle, and discovered Christmas Island and the Hawaiian (Sandwich) Islands, where he was killed.
Scottish; Explored the Canadian northwest, for Britain, 1789. First East to West crossing of North America North of Mexico (predated Lewis and Clark by 10 years).
Scottish; Explored the Gambia and Niger Rivers, for Britain, 1795-98, 1805.
Dr. David Livingstone
Scottish; Crossed Africa, discovered Victoria Falls, for Britain, 1853-1856. His meeting with H.M. Stanley gave rise to the line "Dr. Livingstone, i presume."
Richard Burton, John Speke
English; Exploration of Nile, including source of the White Nile, for Britain, 1858-59.
Welsh; Led expedition to find David Livingstone, 1871.
American; First to reach North Pole, for the United States, 1909; there is now some question as to whether he actually reached the Pole. Accompanied by black American explorer, Matthew Henson.
Norwegian; First to reach the South Pole, for Norway, 1912, beating the British expedition led by Robert Falcon Scott, all of whose members perished.
Richard Byrd, Floyd Bennett
American; First flight over the North Pole, for the United States, 1926.
American; First flight over the South Pole, for the United States, 1929. Received the Congressional Medal of Honor.
USSR; First man in space, 1961.
America; First American in space (suborbital), 1961.
American; First American in space (orbital), 1961.
USSR; First woman in space, 1963.
American; First American woman in space, 1983.
USSR; First space walk, 1965.
American; First American space walk, 1965.
American; First flight to the moon (no landing), 1968 (Frank Borman, Jim Lovell, William Anders).
American; First moon landing, 1969 (Neil Armstrong (first), Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, Michael Collins (command module).
Soviet Space Program
Vostok (1 cosmonaut, 6 missions)
Voshkod (2-3 cosmonauts, 2 missions)
Soyuz (1-3 cosmonauts, 8 missions)
Salyut (3 cosmonauts, 1 mission)
Mir (space station 1986-2001)
U.S. Space Program
Mercury (1 astronaut, 6 missions) (Mercury capsule with Atlas booster)
Gemini (2 astronauts, 9 missions) (Gemini capsule with Titan booster)
Apollo (3 astronauts, 12 missions) (Apollo capsule with Saturn Booster)
Skylab (3 astronauts, 3 missions) (1973-79)
Space Shuttle (First, Columbia, April 21, 1981)
Other Space Programs
Joint U.S./USSR; Apollo 18-Soyuz 19, 1975.
International Space Station (1998-Present)
Columbia (1981-2003 Destroyed)
Challenger (1983-1986 Destroyed)
Discovery (1984-2011 on display in VA)
Atlantis (1985-2011 on display at Kennedy Space Center) (135th and final shuttle launch)
Endeavour (1992-2011 on display in LA)
Enterprise (Test only)