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Flashcards in Explorers and Discoverers Deck (44):


Labrador, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and New England ca. A.D. 1000. They named their settlements Helluland, Markland and Vineland.


Prince Henry the Navagator

(1394-1460) Great Portuguese patron of exploration; expeditions financed by Henry explored the Madeiras, the Azors, the Canaries and the West African Coast.


Bartolomeu Dias

First to pass the Cape of Good Hope, 1488, for Portugal.


Cristopher Columbus

Italian (Genoa); discovered America for Spain, 1492. He made four voyages and discovered many of the major Caribbean islands (Cuba, Puerto Rico, Jamaica, Hispaniola). Born Cristopher Colombo; known in Spanish as Cristoforo Colon.


John Cabot

Italian (Venetian); Newfoundland or Nova Scotia, northeast coast of North America, for England, 1497-98. Cabot was born Giovanni Caboto.


Vasco da Gama

Portuguese; First to reach India, 1498, for Portugal.


Pedro Cabral

Portuguese; Discovered Barzil, for Portugal, 1513.


Vasco Nunez de Balboa

Spanish; First European to lead an expidition to have seen or reached the Pacific from the New World, for Spain, 1513.


Hernando Cortez

Spanish; Conquered Aztec Empire of Mexico, for Spain, 1519.


Ferdinand Magellan

Portuguese; First circumnavigation of the globe, for Spain, 1519-1520. Expedition discovered Straits of Magellan and the Philippines, where Magellan was killed (Battle of Mactan). His crew finished the voyage afterward.


Giovanni Verrazano

Italian (Florence); Discovered New York harbor, for France, 1524. The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge connecting Brooklyn and Staten Island across the mouth of New York harbor is named for him.


Francisco Pizarro

Spanish; Conquered Inca Empire of Peru, for Spain, 1524. Was with Balboa on expedition to Pacific.


Jacques Cartier

French; Discovered Gulf of St. Lawrence, etc., for France, 1532. Named Canada.


Hernando de Soto

Spanish; Discovered the Mississippi River (by land), for Spain, 1539-41. Captain under Pizarro in conquest of Peru.


Francisco de Coronado

Spanish; Led expedition across much of what is now the southwest United States, for Spain, in search of Cibola, the Seven Cities of Gold, 1540.


Samuel de Champlain

French; Canada and Lake Champlain, for France, 1603-1609. "The Father of New France"


Henry Hudson

English; Discovered Hudson River, for Dutch East India Company; Discovered Hudson Bay, for England, 1609-10, while searching for northwest passage. Crew mutinied in 1611.


Jacques Marquette, Louis Joliet

French (Laon, Quebec); Explored the Northern Mississippi River, for France, 1673.


Sieur de La Salle

French; Explored the length of the Mississippi, for France, 1682; Laid claim to all lands touching the river, which he called Louisiana for King Louis XIV.


Vitus Bering

Danish; Explored the northern Pacific and the Aleutian Islands, for Russia, 1728, 1741.


James Cook

English; Three voyages of exploration across the Pacific for Britain, 1768-79. He discovered the east coast of Australia, was the first to sail across the Antarctic Circle, and discovered Christmas Island and the Hawaiian (Sandwich) Islands, where he was killed.


Alexander Mackenzie

Scottish; Explored the Canadian northwest, for Britain, 1789. First East to West crossing of North America North of Mexico (predated Lewis and Clark by 10 years).


Mungo Park

Scottish; Explored the Gambia and Niger Rivers, for Britain, 1795-98, 1805.


Dr. David Livingstone

Scottish; Crossed Africa, discovered Victoria Falls, for Britain, 1853-1856. His meeting with H.M. Stanley gave rise to the line "Dr. Livingstone, i presume."


Richard Burton, John Speke

English; Exploration of Nile, including source of the White Nile, for Britain, 1858-59.


Henry Stanley

Welsh; Led expedition to find David Livingstone, 1871.


Robert Peary

American; First to reach North Pole, for the United States, 1909; there is now some question as to whether he actually reached the Pole. Accompanied by black American explorer, Matthew Henson.


Roald Amundsen

Norwegian; First to reach the South Pole, for Norway, 1912, beating the British expedition led by Robert Falcon Scott, all of whose members perished.


Richard Byrd, Floyd Bennett

American; First flight over the North Pole, for the United States, 1926.


Richard Byrd

American; First flight over the South Pole, for the United States, 1929. Received the Congressional Medal of Honor.


Yuri Gagarin

USSR; First man in space, 1961.


Alan Shepard

America; First American in space (suborbital), 1961.


John Glenn

American; First American in space (orbital), 1961.


Valentina Tereshkova

USSR; First woman in space, 1963.


Sally Ride

American; First American woman in space, 1983.


Aleksei Leonov

USSR; First space walk, 1965.


Edward White

American; First American space walk, 1965.


Apollo 8

American; First flight to the moon (no landing), 1968 (Frank Borman, Jim Lovell, William Anders).


Apollo 11

American; First moon landing, 1969 (Neil Armstrong (first), Edwin (Buzz) Aldrin, Michael Collins (command module).


Soviet Space Program

Vostok (1 cosmonaut, 6 missions)
Voshkod (2-3 cosmonauts, 2 missions)
Soyuz (1-3 cosmonauts, 8 missions)
Salyut (3 cosmonauts, 1 mission)
Mir (space station 1986-2001)


U.S. Space Program

Mercury (1 astronaut, 6 missions) (Mercury capsule with Atlas booster)
Gemini (2 astronauts, 9 missions) (Gemini capsule with Titan booster)
Apollo (3 astronauts, 12 missions) (Apollo capsule with Saturn Booster)
Skylab (3 astronauts, 3 missions) (1973-79)
Space Shuttle (First, Columbia, April 21, 1981)


Other Space Programs

Joint U.S./USSR; Apollo 18-Soyuz 19, 1975.
International Space Station (1998-Present)


Space Shuttles

Columbia (1981-2003 Destroyed)
Challenger (1983-1986 Destroyed)
Discovery (1984-2011 on display in VA)
Atlantis (1985-2011 on display at Kennedy Space Center) (135th and final shuttle launch)
Endeavour (1992-2011 on display in LA)
Enterprise (Test only)


Mars Rovers

Mars 2; USSR (1971) Failed landing.
Mars 3; USSR (1971) Lost 20 sec. after landing.
Sojourner-Mars Pathfinder; USA (1997 July-Sep.)
Beagle 2; European (2003); Lost on separation.
Spirit; USA (2004-2010); Drove 4.8 mi.
Opportunity; USA (2004-Present)
Curiosity; USA (2012-Present)