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Flashcards in Glossary of Architectural Terms Deck (43):
1

Agora

Open area for assemblies, meetings, and markets in ancient Greece.

2

Aisle

Division of the main structure of Roman basilicas and Christian churches into lateral areas adjacent to, and on both sides of the nave.

3

Acropolis

Group of main temples on an elevated section, or hill, in ancient Greece.

4

Ambo

Pulpit or stand in Early Christian or Byzantine churches used for readings.

5

Amphitheater

Outdoor theater, either round or semicircular, with tiered seats for the audience.

6

Apse

Semicircular, polygonal or square end of a Roman basilica or Christian church.

7

Aqueduct

Means of channeling or carrying water.

8

Arch

Curved structure that spans an opening and is usually formed by voussoirs.

9

Arcade

Series of arches carried on columns; can be attached to a wall or freestanding.

10

Atrium

Court with open roof; in Roman houses it included a basin to catch rainwater; in early Christian churches, a forecourt with a colonnade leading to the church entrance; in modern times often a glass covered interior.

11

Auditorium

In an amphitheater, the circular or semicircular area of tiered seats for the audience.

12

Barrel Vault

Continuous semicircular ceiling.

13

Basilica

Roman meeting hall with high central nave, clerestory windows, apse and often side aisles, used to law courts, meetings and other assemblies; adapted in Early Christian churches.

14

Basilican Church

Early Christian church base on the basilica with central nave and clerestory windows, two or four side aisles, an apse at one end, and covered with a timber roof; the basilica remained a basic Christian church building type until modern times.

15

Broken Pediment

Pediment that has a gap where the apex would be.

16

Buttress

Heavy structure against a wall that carries the outward thrust of a vault or dome down to a lower support or the ground.

17

Cantilever

Beam or other structural member that projects past its support at one end and is free at the other.

18

Caryatid

Sculpture of a figure, usually a draped female, used in place of a column.

19

Cathedral

Church where the bishop presides; other churches in the bishop's area of authority are subordinate.

20

Capital

Highest part of a column where it meets the entablature; design reflects the different architectural orders.

21

Cella

Room in a classical temple that houses the statue of the god of that temple; same as the Greek naos.

22

Chancel

Extension of a church, usually beyond the transept, that includes the choir and apse.

23

Choir

Area in the chancel, usually immediately beyond the transept, in which the choir is seated; can also mean the entire chancel.

24

Classical Architecture

Architecture of ancient Greece and Rome; also applied to later buildings based on Greek and Roman forms.

25

Clerestory Windows

Windows on the walls of a nave that rise above the roofs of the side aisles.

26

Cloister

Covered and often colonnaded structure in monasteries, with open courtyard in the center, that is reserved for monks.

27

Colonnade

Row of columns supporting a beam, entablature, or roof structure.

28

Column

Cylindrical vertical support member.

29

Composite Order

Combination of Corinthian and Ionic orders; the capital has acanthus leaves and scroll volutes.

30

Concrete

Structural material, composed of cement, water, and aggregate, that can be cast in a multitude of shapes.

31

Corbeled Arch

Arch constructed of horizontal stone layers in which each layer projects beyond the previous one below until they meet at the top of the arch.

32

Corinthian Order

Greek order with slim fluted columns and capitals decorated with acanthus leaves.

33

Crossing

Space created in a basilican church where the nave is intersected by the transept.

34

Cupola

Small dome, sometimes on top of a larger dome.

35

Dome

Circular convex structure that covers an interior space; sometimes mounted on a drum; semicircular domes often cover apses and can also act as buttresses.

36

Doric Order

Greek order with sturdy fluted columns and plain capitals.

37

Drum

Circular or polygonal wall that supports a dome.

38

Elevation

Projection of a building from one side into the vertical plane showing the arrangement of windows, roof, etc.

39

Entablature

Horizontal structure supported by columns in classical architecture.

40

Entasis

Slight convex swelling of the sides of classical columns to counteract the optical illusion that a column with straight sides is slightly thinner in the center than at the top and bottom.

41

Fenestration

Windows.

42

Fluting

Vertical grooving of columns and pilasters.

43

Flying Buttress

Detached vertical structure adjacent to vaulting that arches over to the main structure at the point of outward thrust from the vault and carries the thrust down to a lower support; a feature of Gothic cathedrals that permits thin walls and large clerestory windows.