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Flashcards in export_circulatory parasites Deck (48):
1

Organism that causes African sleeping sickness

Trypanosoma brucei

2

Vector for Trypanosoma brucei

Tsetse fly

3

Early stage of sleeping sickness

Organisms in blood and peripheral lymph nodes
Fever, myalgia, chills, lymphadenopathy

4

Late stage of sleeping sickness

Invasion of CNS
Headaches, seizures, tremors, encephalitis, coma, death

5

Diagnose sleeping sickness

Detection of parasites in blood smears, lymph node aspirates, or CSF

6

Trypanosoma brucei immune evasion

Ag variation

7

Organism that causes Chagas' disease

Trypanosoma cruzi

8

Vector for Trypanosoma cruzi

Reduvid bug
Transmitted by fecal material

9

First sign of Chagas' disease

Romana's sign - development of chagoma

10

Acute phase of Chagas' disease

Fever, malaise, myalgia, hepatosplenomegaly

11

Indeterminate (asymptomatic) phase of Chagas' disease

Few parasites in blood, but high level of Ab

12

Chronic stage of Chagas' disease

Infection of cardiac muscle/myenteric plexus
Cardiac and GI involvement

13

Diagnose Chagas' disease

Parasites in peripheral blood (acute)
Serology (chronic)

14

Organisms that cause visceral Leishmaniasis

L. donovani
L. infantum

L. chagasi

15

Vector for Leishmaniasis

Female sand flies

16

Visceral Leishmaniasis disseminates in which system?

Reticuloendothelial (liver, spleen, bone marrow, etc.)

17

Initial presentation of Leishmaniasis

Low grade, irregular fever
Most infections are asymptomatic and resolve

18

Symptoms of full-blown Leishmaniasis

Fever, weight loss, hepatosplenomegaly
Systemic immunosuppression, opportunistic infections

19

What does resolution of Leishmaniasis depend on, and why?

CMI via gamma-IFN activation of macrophages, because only intracellular forms of the pathogen (amastigotes) are found in infected individuals

20

Organisms causing malaria

Plasmodium spp.

21

What four spp. of Plasmodium cause malaria in humans?

P. falciparum
P. vivax

P. malariae

P. ovale

First two are most common

22

Vector for malaria transmission

Mosquitos

23

Characteristic clinical feature of malaria

Malarial paroxysm - release of merozoites and hemolysis
Flu-like symptoms

24

Duration and pattern of paroxysm based on organism (malaria)

P. vivax, ovale, and falciparum - 48 hours
P. malariae - 72 hours

25

Three stages of malaria

Cold stage (15-60 mins)
Hot stage (2-6 hours)

Sweat stage (8-12 hours)

26

Most common complication of malaria

Anemia
RBC lysis, suppression of erythropoiesis, destruction of RBCs by spleen

27

Targets of each malaria organism

P. falciparum - both young and mature RBCs
P. vivax - young RBCs, must bear Duffy Ag

P. ovale - young RBCs, Duffy positive or negative

P. malariae - older RBCs

28

Which malaria organism causes the most severe anemia?

P. falciparum

29

Which malaria organisms can remain dormant in the liver for years?

P. vivax
P. ovale

30

Diagnose malaria

Clinical syndrome
Travel Hx

Blood smear for parasites

31

Characteristic feature of P. falciparum

"Purple banana"

32

Organisms causing babesiosis

Babesia spp.

33

Vector for Babesia spp. transmission

Ticks

34

Characteristic feature of babesia infection

"Maltese cross"

35

Babesiosis symptoms

Most infections are asymptomatic
Fever, chills, myalgia, hemolytic anemia

36

Organisms causing filariasis

Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi (nematodes)

37

Vector for filariasis transmission

Mosquitoes

38

Symptoms of filariasis

Many are asymptomatic
Acute infection begins with fever, chills, and lymphadenitis

Only small percentage develop "elephantiasis"

39

Diagnose filariasis

Observation of microfilariae in blood smears

40

Treatment for filariasis

DEC kills microfilariae and damages adults
Steroids counteract allergic response to dying worms

41

Organisms causing schistosomiasis

Schistosoma spp.

42

Different species that cause schistosomiasis and where they infect

S. mansoni - venous plexus of L.I.
S. japonicum - venous plexus of S.I.

S. haematobium - venous plexus of bladder

43

Diagose schistosomiasis

Eggs in feces or urine

44

Intracellular stage for sleeping sickness

None

45

Intracellular stage for Chagas' disease

Skeletal and cardiac muscle cells

46

Intracellular stage for Leishmaniasis

Macrophages

47

Intracellular stage for malaria

RBCs, hepatocytes

48

Intracellular stage for babesiosis

RBCs