export_circulatory viruses ii and cmv Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in export_circulatory viruses ii and cmv Deck (37):
1

CMV virus family and features

Herpesvirus
Enveloped, dsDNA

Latency occurs in monocytes

2

Diagnose CMV

Detection of viral DNA or virus culture from diseased tissue
Seroconversion

3

First line treatment of CMV

Gancyclovir
Valgancyclovir

4

Second line treatment of CMV

Cidofivir
Foscarnet

5

Gancyclovir

Converted to viral polymerase inhibitor by CMV enzymes

6

Valgancyclovir

Converted into gancyclovir within body, increases bioavailability

7

Cidofivir

Converted into viral polymerase inhibitor by cellular enzymes
More toxic than Gancyclovir

8

Foscarnet

Direct inhibitor of CMV polymerase

9

Mono-like illness

Caused by CMV
Fever, fatigue, abnormal T cells

Pharyngitis that is non-exudative (unlike in mono)

NO heterophile Ab production

10

Cytomegalic inclusion body disease

Congenital disease most often caused by mother contracting a primary infection during pregnancy

11

Symptoms of cytomegalic inclusion body disease

Hepatosplenomegaly
Jaundice

Petechiae/rash

12

Which viral pathogen is most common in complicating organ transplants

CMV

13

Prevention of CMV infection in immunocompromised patients

Donor matching
Prophylaxis or preemptive therapy with antivirals

CMV Ig

14

Myocarditis features

More common in adult men
May mimic MI

Most commonly associated with viral infection

15

Diagnose viral myocarditis

CHF with unknown origin
CXR, ECG

Biopsy - NAAT

16

Treatment for viral myocarditis

Manage symptoms of CHF and arrhythmias

17

Mumps symptoms

Swollen, tender parotid glands
Malaise/anorexia

18

Mumps virus family and features

Paramyxoviridae
-ssRNA

One serotype

19

Diagnose mumps

Parotid gland swelling for several days with no other apparent cause
Assays and serological tests are available

20

Treatment of mumps

Uncomplicated cases typically resolve within 10 days

21

Mumps prevention

Live attenuated vaccine
Part of the MMR and MMRV vaccine combinations

22

Kaposi's sarcoma cutaneous lesions

Pink, purple, brown in color
Usually non-painful

Can become confluent

Increased proliferation of endothelial cells

23

Histological features of Kaposi's sarcoma

Spindle morphology of cells

24

Four forms of Kaposi's sarcoma

Classic
Endemic

Transplant-related

AIDS-related

25

Classic KS

Rare
Few lesions

Rarely life-threatening

26

Endemic KS

Can present like classic KS
Can be aggressive and is fatal within 3 years

27

Transplant-related KS

Occurs when individuals are experiencing immunosuppressive therapy for organ transplant
Lesions often resolve when immunosuppressive therapy is discontinued

28

AIDS-related KS

Often more widespread lesions than other KS forms
May include other symptoms (lymphadenopathy, fever, etc.)

Often fatal when lung involvement occurs

29

Human Herpes virus 8 (HHV-8)

Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus
Enveloped, dsDNA

Latent in KS lesions

30

HHV-8 transmission

Sexually contact
Needle sharing

Only small percentage of people will progress to KS

31

Treatment for HHV-8

Herpes antivirals are NOT effective because it's in latent stage
Chemotherapy, radiation, and/or surgery

32

Adult T-cell lymphoma (ATL)

Lymphadenopathy
Hepatosplenomegaly

Hypercalcemia

Skin infiltration

33

ATL diagnostic feature

Flower cells

34

Diagnose ATL

Abs to Human T-cell leukemia virus 1 (HTLV-1)

35

HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (HAM)

Demyelination of neurons within the spinal cord
Likely autoimmune

36

HTLV-1 features

Infects CD4 and CD8 cells
Retrovirus

Enveloped, +ssRNA

37

HTLV-1 treatment

Combined chemotherapy, though it has limited effectiveness