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Psychology Semester 2 > Extended Response > Flashcards

Flashcards in Extended Response Deck (36):
1

Definition of Sense of community

“Sense of Community is that members have of belonging, a feeling that members matter to one another and to the group, and a shared faith that member’s needs will be met through their commitment together” (McMillan, 1976)

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Territorial meaning of community

Geographical notion (neighbourhood or town)

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Relational meaning of community

Relational definition: quality of relationships (with no reference to location)

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Membership Definition

Provides a feeling of belonging, of being part of something bigger than oneself

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The five attributes of Membership

- Boundaries
- Emotional Safety
- A sense of belonging and identification
- Personal investment
- A common symbol sense

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Boundaries

Marked by things such as language, dress and ritual indicating who belongs and who does not

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What do boundaries do

They are protection of personal space and a creation of social distances

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Emotional Safety

Linked with boundaries as boundaries give people emotional safety and protect group intimacy

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Sense of Belonging and Identification

feeling, belief and expectation that one fits in the group

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Personal Investment

Working for membershipmembership creates feeling of having earned membership. Membership will therefore be more meaningful and valuable and it plays a large role in developing an emotional connection

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Common Symbol System

creates and maintains sense of community often by maintaining boundaries

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What are common symbols?

- Strong integrative function of collective representation
- Myths, symbols, rituals, rites, ceremonies, holidays
- Social conventions intentionally create distance between members and non-members

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Influence Definition

Individuals sense of making a difference to its group

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Two parts of Influence

Influence is bidirectional; members must be empowered to have influence over what a group does, and group cohesiveness depends upon the group having some influence over its members

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Who has the strongest influence in a group?

Members who value the opinions of others

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Who has little influence in a group?

Members who try to dominate or ignore other members

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What does conformity serve as?

Closeness and an indicator of cohesiveness
Conforming behaviour indicates creation of group norms AND consensual validation of group members

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What is integration and fulfilment of needs used to describe?

Used to describe not just survival needs, but to also include what is desired and valued by the person

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What is needed for groups to stay together?

Rewarding

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What are the aspects of integration and fulfilment of needs that are rewarding for group members?

- Status
- Competence
- Shared Values

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Status

Group success brings members closer together
For a group to do its best work it needs to be organised

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Competance

People are attracted to others whose skills or competence can benefit them in some way
People are attracted to groups who can offer the most rewards

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Shared Values

The source of the needs that communities fill
Groups with a sense of community work to find a way to fit people together so people’s needs are met by meeting their own needs

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What is Rappaport (1977) person-environment fit?

Members of groups are seen as being rewarded in various ways for their participation

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Shared emotional connection

Refers to the feeling we might have of being connected to another person through a common emotional response to a shared activity or event, that is, shared history

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Contact hypothesis

The more people interact the more they will become close

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Quality of the interaction

Positive relationships lead to stronger bonds
Success facilitates cohesion

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Effect of honour and humilation

Someone who has been rewarded in front of a community feels more attracted to that community, and if humiliated feels less attraction

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Glynn (1981)

Augmented (increased) by responses to a questionnaire distributed to randomly selected members of the Division of Community Psychology of the American Psychological Association.

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What did Glynn hypothesise?

Administered measure to members of three communities and hypothesised that residents of Kfar Blum, and Israeli kibbutz, would demonstrate a greater sense of community than residents of two Maryland communities

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What was found in Glynn's study?

As predicted, higher levels of sense of community were found in the kibbutz than in the two American towns – however, no differences were found among the three on the ideal scale

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What were the strongest predictors of actual sense of community in Glynn's study?

o Expected length of community residency
o Satisfaction with the community
o The number of neighbours one could identify by first name

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What did Glynn also find about positive relationships?

Glynn also found a positive relationship between sense of community and the ability to function competently in the community

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What did Ahlbrant and Cunningham (1979) view sense of community as?

Viewed sense of community as an integral contributor to one’s commitment to a neighbourhood and satisfaction with it

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What did Ahlbrant and Cunningham say about those who were most committed and satisfied see their neighbourhood as?

Those who were most committed and satisfied saw their neighbourhood as a small community within the city, were more loyal to the neighbourhood than to the rest of the city, and thought of their neighbourhood as offering particular activities for its residents

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In Ahlbrant and Cunningham what was also considered to be a contributor to neighbourhood satisfaction?

The “strengths of interpersonal relationships” as measured through different types of neighbour interactions