Extra Questions E1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Extra Questions E1 Deck (42)
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1

Which physical barrier has the greatest surface area to defend?

mucous membranes

2

Which of the following in not considered part of the innate immune system?

Bcells

3

Compliment protein activation is totally dependent on antibodies.

false

4

Which carbohydrates is found on the surface of many common pathogens and can trigger the lectin activation pathway of compliment activation?

mannose

5

What is not a function of the compliment system?

antigen presentation

6

In what state are macrophages good antigen presenters?

primed

7

What is the function of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) which is sometimes expressed on the surface of endothelial cells?

binds integrin expressed on surface of neutophil to stop neutrophil from rolling

8

Which cytokines activate neutrophils as they travel to the battle site?

IL-2

9

Which cytokines, produced by natural killer cells can prime macrophages?

IFN Gamma

10

What organ/tissue is the primary source of the complement proteins?

liver

11

Which activation pathway of the complement system is antibody dependant

classical

12

What cytokine is produced by a hyperactivated macrophage which causes it to secrete lots of IL-12?

TNF

13

Which molecule, native to a bacterial cell wall, can bind to and stimulate both natural killer cells and macrophages signaling that an attack in underway?

IFN gamma

14

In an NK cell membrane, receptors that bind to MHC I receptors displaying peptide fragment elicit what type of response?

kill

15

What “kills” by poking holes in the cell membrane of the invader?

complement

16

What “kills” by poking holes in the cell membrane of the invader, and dumping in granenzyme B?

NK cells

17

Which “kills” by forcing the cell to commit suicide (apoptosis)?

NK cells (Fas & Fas L)

18

What acts as warning proteins, given off by virally infected cells?

TNF

19

What is the most abundant antibody in the blood?

IgG

20

A B cell receptor is best described as?

an antibody tethered to the B cell membrane

21

Which statements regarding a mature B cell is true?

a. only produces soluble antibodies, there are no B cell receptors on the cell surface
b. produces a vast number (>100,000) of different B cell receptors or antibodies
c. produces a small number (

22

At any point in time how many B cells in the blood are identical?

50 – about 30 in the blood

23

Most B cells will eventually find their cognant antigen.(T/F)

false

24

What part of an antibody binds to an antigen?

“top of the Y” heavy and light chains

25

VDJC gene segments on chromosome 14 in humans code for what structure?

the heavy antibody chain

26

What portion of the B cell receptor generates an activation signal inside the B cell?

Ig-Alpha, Ig-Beta

27

Which gene segment humans is there about 40 different variations?

V

28

What receptor on the B cell can bind to a helper T cell which acts as a co-stimulatory signal?

CD40

29

. In order for B cells to activate, they must receive a Th cell co-stimulatory signal. (T/F)

fasle

there are T-cell dependant, and T-cell independant pathways

30

Without T cell help, B cells can activate under what conditions.

pattern recognition (t cell independent)
clustering of B cell receptors