Flashcards in Extra Questions E1 Deck (42)
Which physical barrier has the greatest surface area to defend?
Which of the following in not considered part of the innate immune system?
Compliment protein activation is totally dependent on antibodies.
Which carbohydrates is found on the surface of many common pathogens and can trigger the lectin activation pathway of compliment activation?
What is not a function of the compliment system?
In what state are macrophages good antigen presenters?
What is the function of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM) which is sometimes expressed on the surface of endothelial cells?
binds integrin expressed on surface of neutophil to stop neutrophil from rolling
Which cytokines activate neutrophils as they travel to the battle site?
Which cytokines, produced by natural killer cells can prime macrophages?
What organ/tissue is the primary source of the complement proteins?
Which activation pathway of the complement system is antibody dependant
What cytokine is produced by a hyperactivated macrophage which causes it to secrete lots of IL-12?
Which molecule, native to a bacterial cell wall, can bind to and stimulate both natural killer cells and macrophages signaling that an attack in underway?
In an NK cell membrane, receptors that bind to MHC I receptors displaying peptide fragment elicit what type of response?
What “kills” by poking holes in the cell membrane of the invader?
What “kills” by poking holes in the cell membrane of the invader, and dumping in granenzyme B?
Which “kills” by forcing the cell to commit suicide (apoptosis)?
NK cells (Fas & Fas L)
What acts as warning proteins, given off by virally infected cells?
What is the most abundant antibody in the blood?
A B cell receptor is best described as?
an antibody tethered to the B cell membrane
Which statements regarding a mature B cell is true?
a. only produces soluble antibodies, there are no B cell receptors on the cell surface
b. produces a vast number (>100,000) of different B cell receptors or antibodies
c. produces a small number (
At any point in time how many B cells in the blood are identical?
50 – about 30 in the blood
Most B cells will eventually find their cognant antigen.(T/F)
What part of an antibody binds to an antigen?
“top of the Y” heavy and light chains
VDJC gene segments on chromosome 14 in humans code for what structure?
the heavy antibody chain
What portion of the B cell receptor generates an activation signal inside the B cell?
Which gene segment humans is there about 40 different variations?
What receptor on the B cell can bind to a helper T cell which acts as a co-stimulatory signal?
. In order for B cells to activate, they must receive a Th cell co-stimulatory signal. (T/F)
there are T-cell dependant, and T-cell independant pathways