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Flashcards in Eye 2 Deck (29):
1

RPE, retinal pigment epithelium

close to Bruch's membrane
heavily pigmented because the rods and cones and photsenstive
Releases metabolites from blood into retina
Tightly controlled region
cells here are phagocytic

2

Rods

low intensity (black, white, gray)

3

Cones

high intensity (color)

4

Photoreceptors

deepest layer of retina, rods and cones

5

Conducting neurons

go out towards the vitreous body

6

Bipolar cells

synapse with hyperpolarized rods and cones
depolarizes the bipolar cells which leads to the ganglion cells

7

Ganglion cells

most superfical layer of retina

8

Supporting (neuroglial) cells

packing material
Mullers
Microglial and Astocytes (clean up cells)

9

Association cells

modify the information that comes in and out of cells during hyperpolarization

10

10 layers of retina

Virteous body (inner limiting membrane)
optic nerve fibers
ganglion cell layer
inner plexiform layer
inner nuclear layer
outer plexiform layer
cell bodies of rods and cones (outer limiting membrane)
photoreceptor layer
pigment cells
choroid

11

Optic Disc

where all ganglion cell axons are heading to form the optic nerve
no rods and cones
blind spot

12

Diabetic retinopathy

most common cause of blindness in developed countries
90% of diabetes develop DR w/in 20 years

13

Pathogenesis

fragility of blood vessels, leads to retinal bleeding, edema, neovasculation of retina and iris

14

Non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy

microaneurysms, intraretinal hemorrhages, retinal edema, venous bleeding

15

Proliferative diabetic retinopathy

pre-retinal neovascularization, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, neovascularization of iris

16

Age Realted Macular Degernation

very common
is a multifactorial disease
pathogenesis - development of drusen - macular edema - intra-retinal bleeding

17

Dry AMD

common type
breakdown of RPE cells
characterized by presence of drusen
no treatment

18

Drusen

lipid deposit near the macular and fovea centralis

19

Wet AMD

membrane under retina thickens and reaks, disrupts blood supply to macula
neovascularization occurs
treat with laser and anti-angiogensis drugs

20

3 parts of crystalline lens

lens capsule, subcapsular epithelium, lens fibers

21

Crystallins

protein in lens fibers
eventually take over cell and cell dies,
constantly adding lens

22

cataracts

avascular
nuclei die as they reach the mature lens fibers

23

Conjunctiva

from corneoscleral limbus to scelra than onto the internal surface of eyelid

24

papebral

on eyelid
secretion comes from goblet cells to keep eyelid from sticking to eyeball

25

bulbar

reflection of the palpebral onto the eyeball

26

tarsal muscle

sympathetic portion of the levator palpebrae superioris

27

disrupting sympathetics results in

droopy eyelid

28

Styes

come from secretion by the sebaceous glands

29

lacrimal gland innervated by

CN 7