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Flashcards in Factors improving performance Deck (64):
1

Types of training

Flexibility, aerobic, strength

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What is aerobic training

increase of the ability of the body to deliver and use oxygen

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What is continuous training

Is no less then 20min, at or close to anaerobic threshold, effort without rest, used by endurance athletes, 70% MHR

examples. = cycling, swimming, running

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Energy systems

ATP/PC
Lactic acid
Aerobic

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ATP\PC source of fuel

Creatine phosphate

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Efficiency of ATP/PC production

The supply of ATP is very limited if the demand is high as a result of sustained, maximal or near maximal work. This system is for short explosive movements

E.g. Weightlifting

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ATP/PC cause of fatigue

CP supplies are exhausted after 10-25 seconds
Cause of fatigue is maximal or near maximal effort, the inability to resynthesize

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ATPC/PC rate of recovery

Recovers quickly from exercise
Within 2min, most ATP and CP supplies have been fully restored
CP replenishment occurs within 30sec of rest recovery

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Lactic acid system

Following 10-12 secs maximal exercise, CP supplies are exhausted

The body needs to find new fuel and does this by using immediate sugar supplies circulating the blood
(Blood sugar)

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Lactic acid source of fuel

Carbs - exist in the form of glucose in the blood
Carbs can be found in the form of glycogen

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Lactic acid - efficiency of ATP production

Provides ATP quickly
Requires large quantities of glucose

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Duration of lactic system

Maximal effort caused fatigue I'm 30secs

An effort of 70-80% will not cause exhaustion for 3-4 min and much longer for moderate intensity

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Lactic acid cause of fatigue

When acid levels build up in the muscle cells

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Lactic acid system rate of recovery

In the liver lactic acid is reconverted to glycogen and can once again be used as a source of fuel, this process can take up to 30min to an hour

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Aerobic system

Physical activity lasting more then a few minutes requires the presence of oxygen to ensure the continuation of muscular contraction.

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Aerobic system source of fuel

The aerobic system can use carbs, glucose, fat and protein

When carbs and glucose become exhausted the body turns to its fat supplies

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Physiological adaptations

Running = resting heart rate
Swiftly = stroke vol & cardiac output
Only = oxygen uptake & lung capacity
Hurts = haemoglobin levels
My = muscle hypertrophy
Feet = effect on fast\slow twitch muscle fibres

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Aerobic system cause of fatigue

The transfer from glycogen to fat supplies is referred to as "hitting the wall"

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Aerobic rate of recovery

This system recovers quickly, it takes hours for the glycogen stores to become exhausted

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Aerobic system by-products of energy production

Oxygen is required to burn the fuels in the body (carbs & fat)

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Aerobic system - duration

350g of glycogen is sufficient for 12hrs rest or 1hr of hard work

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Types of flexibility training

Static
Ballistic
Pnf
Dynamic

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Types of strength training

Resistance
Elastic
Hydraulic

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Principles of training

Viagra - variety
Was - warm up/cool down
The - training thresholds
Real - reversibility
Penis - progressive overload
Saver - specificity

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Resting heart rate

The number of heart beats per minute while the body is at rest

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Stroke volume

The amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle of the heart during a contraction. It's is measured in mL/beat

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Cardiac output

The amount of blood (in litres) pumped by the heart per minute

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Oxygen uptake

The ability of the working muscles to use the oxygen being delivered

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Lung capacity

The amount of air the lungs can hold. Measured in ml. It remains the same

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Haemoglobin

The substance in the blood that binds with oxygen to transport it around the body

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Muscle hypertrophy

Is a term that refers to muscle growth together with an increase in the size of muscle cells

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Fast twitch muscle (white)

These cells are better for generating short bursts of of strength or speed. They fatigue quickly

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Slow twitch muscles (red)

Slow twitch fibres contract slowly and release energy gradually required by the body during sustained activity such as jogging, cycling and endurance swimming

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Motivation

Internal state that activates, directs and sustains behaviour towards achieving set goals

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Positive motivation

Positive motivation relies on continual self-reinforcement by others such as a coach, family, friends, spectators and media

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Negative motivation

May be effective for some, usually people get more results from positive motivation

Example - punishing participant for failure

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Intrinsic motivation

Come from within the individual

Examples= meaning, love, curiosity, belonging, learning, mastery

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Extrinsic motivation

Forms of motivation comes from sources outside a person such as a coach or parents, often associated with material reinforcement

Examples = money, competition, points, fear of punishment, badges, rewards

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Anxiety

A pysicalogical process characterised by fear or apprehension in anticipation of confronting a situation perceived to be potentially threatening

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State anxiety

Refers the emotional response of the athlete to a particular situation.
This response may be fear, worry, tension and nervousness

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Trait anxiety

Is the athletes general predisposition to perceive a situation as threatening or non-threatening
This is a personality trait

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Sources of stress

Stress is the non specific response that the body makes to demands placed upon it

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Stress depends on:

Past experience
Routines
Support
Expectations
Pressure

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Stressors include:

Personal pressure, competition pressure, social pressure, physical pressure

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Personal pressure

Expectations of yourself

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Competition pressure

The pressure to impress or win

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Social pressure

Expectations of others

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Physical pressure

Expectations of your physical ability

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Techniques to cope with stress are:

Practicing relaxation techniques
Developing concentration skills
Developing confidence
Planning strategies to cope with the situation

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Optimum arousal

The emotional, mental or physiological activation required producing a response in performance

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Optimum arousal levels vary because of factors such as ..

Expectations
Expectations by others
Experience
Financial pressures
The level of competition
The degree of difficulty

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Psychological strategies to enhance motivation and anxiety

Concentration
Mental rehearsal/ visualisation
Relaxation techniques
Goal setting

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Concentration

Sports psychologists generally agree that the key to success among elite sportspeople is concentration is required, or the ability to focus on the task at hand

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Mental rehearsal/ visualisation

Sometimes referred to as mental imagery, before performance, clearly visualising the game situation in the mind

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Relaxation techniques

Over arousal will tarnish best efforts, relaxation techniques may assist the athlete in control of arousal

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Goal setting

The urge to fulfill goals, provides athletes with reason to preservere with training over extended periods

Short term goals
Long term goals
Behavioural goals
Performance goals

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Nutritional considerations

Pre performance including carb loading
During performance
Post performance

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Supplementation

Vitamin/minerals
Protein
Caffeine
Creatine products

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Recovery strategies

Physiological strategies e.g cool down/hydration
Neural strategies e.g massage
Tissue damage strategies e.g cyrotherapy
Psychological strategies e.g relaxation

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Stages of acquisition (skill)

Cognitive
Associative
Automous

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Cognitive planning

The early identification and understanding of the skill to be learned

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Associative planning

Focuses on the idea of practice with the learner, leaning how to do it

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Automous planning

It is characterised by consistent achievement of desired results

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Characteristics of a Learner

C.H.A.P.P.

Confidence
Hereditary
Ability
Past experience
Personality