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Sociology 1A06 > Families > Flashcards

Flashcards in Families Deck (23):

Two parents and the child or children from their former marriages or intimate unions

Blended families


Defined by many sociologists as sets of intimate social relationships that people create to share resources to ensure their welfare and that of their dependants



Include cash transfers in the form of direct payments or tax deductions and maternity and parental leave benefits

Income Support Payments


Traditional - socially approved, long-term, sexual and economic relationship between man and woman involving reciprocal rights/obligations between spouses and parents and children
Today - common-law marriage and some, including Canada and the US, allow marriage between people of the same sex



Includes a father, mother, and children living in a privatized household

Nuclear Heterosexual Family


Involves the physical and emotional work of bringing new generations into existence and nurturing and caring for both new and older generations in families

Social Reproduction


- Policies that assume financial support
- Policies can deter relationship formation

Social Policy


- they explain sexual division of labour
- Husbands: “instrumental role”
- Wives: “expressive role”

Structural Functionalism


5 functions of families:
1) regulating sexual activity
2) economic cooperation
3) reproduction
4) socialization
5) emotional support
- scope of families were becoming smaller over time
- everyone in family has similar interests and values

Talcott Parsons ( Structural functionalism)


- explains impact of industrialization: households were now units of consumption rather than production
- Workplace not safe; women usually protected by staying in the home

Conflict Theory


- explains emergence of private property resulted in control over women's fidelity
- When humans could accumulate wealth the traditional nuclear family emerged, where women’s fidelity was reinforced

Frederick Engels


- They develop concept of patriarchy
- Potential conflict and abuse and male dominance
- Critique idea of there being one perfect family
- Criticism - patriarchy is problematic

Feminist Theory


- They look at how we actively create “family”
- Looking at symbols related to rituals/ceremonies (rings)
- Criticism: emphasis on micro level policies and overlooking impact of larger social structures

Symbolic Interactionism


Hunting and Gathering Societies

- Fluid gender roles - men and women had similar roles
- Parents with children but not living in privatized household; on the move, in search for food and survival


Pre-Industrial Society

- Household composition determined by labour needs
- Households only supported certain amount of people
- Not clear separation of public and private aspects of the household
- Children had economic value - promoting fertility


Industrial Society

- Separation of public and private spheres
- Replaced by large scale production in factories
- Leads to families shrinking down to parents and children
- 1950s: Dramatic shift in family trends and manufacturing
- 1960s: Wives entered paying jobs



- Increased through 1960s-1980s
- Increased blended families and single parent homes
- 2nd marriages = higher rate



- Increasing
- Some view it as a trial phase before marriage and some use it as a replacement for marriage
- Popular in Quebec



- Declining; decriminalization contraception, legal abortion
- Postponed childbearing for post secondary education
- Shorter reproductive windows
- Careers that lower availability to raise families
- Many deciding not to have kids


- Astronaut families
- Parachute kids
- Multi-family and intergenerational households

Transnational Families


- marriage and divorce laws
- income security programs
- child welfare programs
- childcare services

Family Policy


- cash transfers; direct payments and tax deductions
- maternity and parental leave benefits
- maintenance payments

Income Support Possibilities


Canadian Social Policy vs. Other Countries

- lower benefit levels
- stricter eligibility criteria - excludes a lot of people
- lack of universal childcare