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Digestive System > Fat Digestion > Flashcards

Flashcards in Fat Digestion Deck (44):
1

What are the key concepts of Fats

1) major energy store and fuel source
2) Needed to transport fat soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K)
3) Provide essential FAs (linoleic acid) that cannot be manufactured anywhere else
4) Insulate and protect the body (as below a certain body % we die!)

2

What are the properties of FAs dependent on?

- number of carbons
- Placement of double bonds

Can be saturated, monosaturated, polysaturated

3

What types of fatty acids are solid @ room temp

Saturated FA (no double bonds)

4

Types of FAs liquid @ room temp

unsaturated FA (mono/polysaturated)

5

Two types of Lipids

Triglycerides (fats & oils)
Sterols

6

Most common type of lipid

Triglycerides ( 3 FA bonded to glycerol)

7

Long-chain FA are found in

meat, fish, vegetable oils

8

medium and short chain FA are found in

dairy products

9

Saturated fats

-Solid @ room temp
-more resistant to oxidation

10

Unsaturated fats

Polyunsaturated : liquid @ room temp, spoil most readily

Mono saturated: less susceptible to spoilage

11

What does hydrogenation do?

Forced chemical addition of hydrogen.
When heated US FAs become hydrogenated, become to act like saturated fats, eg) margarine

-Protects against oxidation pro-longing shelf life

12

Which oil has the highest % of saturated fats

Coconut oil, despite its fame within the health industry

13

Why can we not treat every FA the same?

Because they all have different ratios of FA types within them, there is a huge amount of variability

14

A well known sterol is _______, ___% is from the food we eat, and ___% is manufactured (endogenous)

A well known sterol is cholesterol, 20% is from the food we eat, and 80% is manufactured (endogenous)

15

Where is cholesterol found?

In animal foods only.

16

What do plant based sterols do?

As these are similar in structure, they block and interfere with cholesterol absorption.
We consume 30mg/day of PB sterol
They block the reabsorption of bile acids, disrupt the enterohepatic circulation of bile (which is made from endogenous cholesterol. This lowers cholesterol.

17

Where are sterols found?

In both plant and animals

18

Roles of sterols

1) starting material for bile acids, sex hormones, adrenal hormones and vit D
2) Structural component of cell membranes
3) liver produces 800-1500mg cholesterol per day (endogenous)

19

Athersclerosis

when cholesterol forms deposits in the artery wall. Causes heart attacks.

20

Fat digestion in the mouth...

Salivary glands release lingual lipase as we chew food. Also warmth of mouth softens fats

21

Fat digestion in the stomach...

acid stable lingual lipase initiates lipid digestion

a little gastric lipase produced and some enzymatic breakdown

muscle contractions/churning action of stomach- disperses fat into smaller droplets

Chyme begins to leave stomach, enters duodenum

22

Fat digestion in the small intestine...

CCK is released and signals the gall bladder to release bile (fat > emulsified fat)

secretin stimulates the pancreas to release enzymes eg) pancreatic cholesterase & pancreatic lipase,
Emulsified fat > monoglycerides, glycerol and Fatty acids

23

What are the actions of bile?

binds to droplets and repels them from each other. Keeps droplets small and makes it easier for enzyme (lipase) to latch on and break the down into smaller, absorbable contents

24

Recycling of bile in the liver

-bile stored in gall bladder
-emulsifies fat in SI
(if trapped in colon by soluble fibres it is lost as faeces)
-in liver, bile is made from cholesterol

25

How do sterols affect bile?

interfere with the uptake of bile salts to liver.
Cause us to loss more bile via faeces

26

Statins

Reduce production of cholesterol

27

What are plant sterols and statins used for?

To decrease CVD

28

Variation between absorbtion of FAs

Short and medium chain FA: can be absorbed directly through the enterocytes > blood supply of villi > portal vein

Long chain FA: pass into enterocyte via basolateral membrane (micelles) > ER to get repackaged into chylomicrons > lacteal > lymph system > blood

29

Chylomicron components are removed during circulation due to what?

Triglyceride hydrolises by lipases released from peripheral tissues

30

What happens to the chylomicron during circulation

Becomes smaller and denser, chylomicron remnants are endocytosed by the liver

31

Lipid transport is made possible by a group of vehicles called

lipoproteins

32

the largest of lipoproteins

Chylomicrons

33

VLDL are composed primarily of

Half triglycerides (eg chylomicrons)

34

LDL are composed primarily of

half cholesterol

35

HDL are composed primarily of

half protein

36

Structure of a chylomicron (a type of lipoprotein)

interior of triglycerides and cholesterol, surrounded by phospholipids
Hydrophobic tails on inside and hydrophillic heads on the outside allow lipids to travel through the watery fluids of the blood

37

Why do we want a higher ratio of HDL to LDL?

Because we want more protein and less TG's and cholesterol

38

How much of our total energy intake from fat

35%

39

How much %fat should we be having daily?

20-35%

40

how much saturated fat, n-6 and n-3 FAs should we have daily

Saturated fats

41

1980s is relevant to cholesterol why?

its the year info about cholesterol and CVD came out
-strong association between saturated fats & CVD (also smoking)

42

FI response to reduce fat intake

low fat (high sugar) products. Fat replaced to carbohydrates (simple sugars) and now we have an obesity epidemic

43

FI response to reduce sat fat and cholesterol

change to vege oils, margarines, trans fats

44

How do large lipids (LCFA and monoglycerides) get into the enterocytes?

They combine with bile to for 'micelles', that are sufficiently water-soluble to enter the watery solution that covers the cell. Enters via BL membrane, diffuses into the cell