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What is nutrition?

the science of foods an the substances they contain, and their actions within the body.


What is diet?

The food and beverages one consumes. the quality of these affects the quality of life and the risk of chronic diseases.


"co-morbidity of disease"

diseases that often go 'hand in hand' eg) heart attack and obesity


why is central adiposity a risk factor for chronic disease?

excessive abdominal fat around vital organs such as heart and lungs.


What are population guidelines and why do we have them?

guidelines that try assist people on what to eat. These aim to reduce risk factors for non-communicable diseases and ensure adequate nutrient intakes.


what is the criteria set in place for population guidelines?

1) Evidence based
2) adequate nutrient intake
3) must optimise health
and what is being reccomended must be safe to consume; low in additives or potentially harmful added substances


What does DALY stand for

disability adjusted life year


How do you calculate DALY



What are the NZ eating and activity guidelines

1) enjoy a variety of nutritious foods every day
2) Choose and/or prepare foods and drinks
3) make plain water your first choice over other drinks
4) keep alcohol intake low
5) Buy or gather , prepare, cook and store food to ensure it's safe to eat.
Body weight statements
Activity statements


Body weight statment

making good choices about what you eat and drink and being physically active are also important to achieve and maintain a healthy body weight


Activity statements

1) Sit less, do more! Break up long periods of sitting
2) do at least 2 and a half hours of moderat; or 1 1/4 hours of vigorous physical activity a week
3) for extra health benefits aim for 5 hours moderate of 2 1/2 vigorous physical activity a week.


What is different about our everyday activity?

We are doing far more sedentary activity, physically moving less.


Issues with salt?

We eat far more then the recommended 2g amount. this can cause hypertension
-arterial pressure
-cardiac hypertropy
-diastolic dysfunction
-renal failure
therefore there is damage to a number of organs and blood pressure


sources of salt

26% bread
8% cakes
10% processed meat
10% cereals
4% sauces


What do they mean by " enjoy a variety of nutritious foods everyday"?

plenty fruits and veges
grain foods (whole grains and high fibre)
some milk and milk product
some legumes, nuts, seeds, fish, red meat, poultry


what do they mean by "choose and/or prepare foods and drinks?"

choose unsaturated fats over saturated fats
choose low salt (iodised preferably)
little/no added sugar
choose 'whole foods' that aren't processed


Why fruits and veges?

This has the most convincing evidence
lowers cancer
better weight control and blood glucose
give us vitamin C, A, K, phytochemicals minerals and fibres


What do phytochemicals do?

Have a huge antioxidant effect! Are what give fruit and veges colour!


Why whole grain?

In refined white flour the germ (B, E vitamins, minerals and phytochemicals) and the bran (fibre, B vitamin, minerals) are LOST


Importance of dietary fibre?

Keeps us regular
keeps bowel mucosal cells healthy
lowers cancer
lowers CVD
increases weight control


Why milk?

increase Vitamin A, D, calcium, and protein

BUT remember low fat products are still reccomended


Sources of calcium

nuts, seeds, fish bones


Osteoporotic bone

higher risk in women, big cause of premature death. Huge mineral loss in bone structure, causing weakening.


Why legumes, nuts, meats etc?

Increase protein, iron/zinc, Vitamin A/E, fatty acids

Decrease cancer, diabetes, CVD


What are fish high in?

Omega-3 fatty acids


What is the plate model?

Way for people to conceptualise portion sizing.
1/2 fruit/vege
1/4 grain
1/4 protein