A group of organisms that can cause acute endocarditis. They are usually found in the upper airway and the mouth.
Pathogens of Cellulitis
Staphylococcus aureas (MSSA / MRSA)
Group A Streptococcus sp.
Vibro sp. (if water)
Pathogens of Community Acquired Pneumonia
Mechanisms of Antibacterials
Inhibits cell wall
Inhibits protein synthesis
Disrupts DNA & NA synthesis
Disrupts cell membrane
Inhibit cell wall synthesis.
Beta Lactamase Inhibitors
Combined with beta lactams to increase coverage against bacteria that have evolved beta lactamases.
Examples are amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, ampicillin-sulbactam, and pipercillin-tazobactam.
What Doesn't Pip-Tazo Cover?
Atypicals that don't have cell walls (Mycoplasma, Chlamydia, Legionella)
Penicillin resistant S. pneumoniae
A class of beta-lactam antibiotics.
Come in different generations. Generally, first generation is more limited to good gram + coverage with minimal gram -, while later generations have much more broad coverage.
Cephalosporins do not cover enterococcus, MRSA, and atypical pneumonia pathogens.
Broad spectrum beta-lactam class antibiotics.
Good coverage for gram negatives (including Pseudomonas), gram positives, and anaerobes.
Covers man resistant gram positive organisms including MRSA, coagulase negative Staph, Enterococcus, and C. difficile.
Lincosamides - Clindamycin
Lincosamide class inhibits 50S ribosome.
Good for covering MRSA, dental infections, and has good oral bioavailability.
The bad is that it is the major culprit to C. difficile infections.
Protein synthesis inhibitor.
The good is it can be used to treat many respiratory infections, GU infections, and other misc. infections. It has good tissue and intracellular penetration.
The bad is it is teratogenic, depoits in bones and teeth, and causes photosensitivity.
Inhibit DNA synthesis.
Include ciprofloxacin, levofloxicin, and moxifloxicin.
Bacteriocidal, excellent oral bioavailability, good penetration.
The bad is prolonged QT intervals, achilles tendon ruptures, and a risk of C. dif.