February 23, 2016 - Bronchiolitis Flashcards Preview

COURSE 3 > February 23, 2016 - Bronchiolitis > Flashcards

Flashcards in February 23, 2016 - Bronchiolitis Deck (12):


Inflammation of the bronchioles, the smallest air passages of the lungs.

It usually occurs in children less than 2 years of age, with the majority being aged between 3 and 6 months.

It presents with coughing, wheezing, and shortness of breath which can cause some difficulty in children with feeding or drinking. It is usually caused by the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in over 70% of cases and is more common in winter months.


Bronchiolitis and Obstruction

Bronchiolitis is an obstructive disease, like asthma.



Is a high-pitched breath sound resulting from turbulent air flow in the larynx or lower in the bronchiol tree (but still upper respiratory). 

You need to discover the cause.


Who Does Badly?

Premature babies (<32 weeks)

Congenital abnormalities

Genetic syndromes

Chronic disease

Neuromuscular disease

Age <6 weeks


Normal Infant RR

30-60 / minute


Epidemiology of Bronchiolitis

70% from RSV, 20% from parainfluenza / influenza / adenovirus.

Peak incidence of bronchiolitis is at 2-5 months of age.


RSV Infection

Most common cause of bronchiolitis is from RSV.

90% of people have been infected with RSV by the age of 2, but only 20% develop symptoms, 3% are hospitalized, and 0.002% die.


Clinical Course of Bronchiolitis

Incubation period of 2-8 days

URTI is during 1-3 days

Worsening lower airway disease from 3-5 days

Full recovery of 2-8 weeks


Treatment for Bronchiolitis


Supportive care

+/- steroids and epi


Outcomes of Bronchiolitis

RSV may increase the risk of long-term asthma.


Asthma vs. Bronchiolitis

The switch is around 9 months

Generally under 9 months is more likely to be bronchiolitis, and over 9 months is more likely to be asthma.



A guanoside analog used to stop viral RNA synthesis and viram mRNA capping.

It is used to treat hepatitis C primarily, but can also be used to treat severe bronchiolitis caused by RSV.

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