Flashcards in Female Reproductive Anatomy Deck (18)
What provides structural support for the female breast?
The stroma between the mammary glands forms a network of ligaments (Cooper's ligaments), that function to keep the breast in its position between ribs 2-6 on the anterior chest wall.
Describe the blood supply to the breast.
Medially: branches from the internal thoracic artery.
Laterally: branches from the lateral thoracic artery (a branch from the axillary artery).
Describe the lymphatic drainage of the breast.
Medial 25%: parasternal lymph nodes. Due to communication with opposite breast --- source of met. to opp. breast.
Lateral 75% (including nipple area): axillary lymph nodes - first, the pectoral nodes. Any mets will be found here first.
Caution must be observed when ligating the lateral thoracic artery (for mastectomy) such that you do not also capture this nerve:
Long thoracic nerve. Could lead to winged scapula.
What is the only somatic motor nerve supplying the skeletal muscles of the pelvic floor and perineum in a female?
List the two skeletal muscles surrounding 1) the crura of the corpora cavernosa and 2) the vestibular bulbs on either side of the external opening of the vagina
1) ischiocavernosus m.
2) bulbospongiosus m.
What vascular structure is responsible for filling the clitoris with blood in states of arousal?
Deep artery to the clitoris. Analogous structure in males that serves same function.
Dorsal artery just supplies blood to skin and subcutaneous tissue.
Describe the parasympathetic supply to the pelvis that maintains erection/excitation of clitoris.
Pelvic splanchnic nerves
Centrally: derived from S2-S4
What is the name of the double layered flap of parietal peritoneum that wraps around the bladder and uterus forming a mesentery? List its 3 distinct divisions and their structural relations.
Mesosalpinx: between uterine tube and base of mesovarium.
Mesovarium: connects ovary to the uterus, horizontally.
Mesometrium: attached to lateral surface of uterus and is the largest section. Looks like a wing.
What is the common site for ectopic abdominal pregancy and accumulation of fluid in ascites?
Describe the relationship of the uterine artery to the ureter.
Water (ureter) under the bridge (uterine artery). Easy to damage ureter when making surgical approach to uterus, e.g. ligating uterine artery.
Describe the differences between 1st, 2nd, and 3rd degree uterine prolapse.
1st- cervix just protrudes a little further into the upper portion of the vagina.
2nd- cervix/uterus protrude significantly into the vagina.
3rd- cervix and uterus have exited the opening of the vagina.
The uterine artery supplies the majority of the blood to the uterus. Where does it receive its supply from?
Internal iliac artery
What is the most common site of non-abdominal ectopic pregancy?
Ampulla of fallopian tube.
Describe the structure carrying the ovarian vasculature and nervous structures to the ovary.
The suspensory ligament (infundibulopelvic lig./IPL) carries the ovarian artery/vein as well as the autonomics/lymphatic channels.
The ovarian ligament and round ligament are remnants of the embryonic:
List 3 visceral herniations that can make intercourse painful for the female, as they are impinging on the vaginal space.
Enterocele- small bowel