Female Reproductive disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Female Reproductive disorders Deck (36)
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  • used to visulize uterine, ovaries via microscope via small incisiona t end of vigina-cervix
  • inform pt incision will heal on own, no douching, expect some bleeding, nothinbg up there ( tampons, penises ect)
  • easiest way to inspect the pelvic cavity
  • knee chest or lithotomy position
  • light sedation
  • tissue samples may be taken
  • may see fertility issues, ectopic pregnancies or tumor masses






  • under local or general anesthesia
  • through small abdominal incision
  • tubal ligation may be used
  • gas inserted co2 to visualize other organs- post abdominal pain expected


Dilation and Curettage

  • Diagnose uterine cancer or causes of abnormal bleeding
  • cervix is dilated
  • used for fibroid cleaning, post abortions, misscariages
  • if endomitriosis to clean a bit
  • tissue samples may be taken
  • performed under general anesthesia
  • pain meds given



  • radiologic test to detect breast cyst or tumors
  • obtained at age 40-50 then anually
  • breast compressed as thinly as possible by machine
  • if hx of breast cancer earlier age
  • remind patient to notify if they have breast implants


self breast exams

  • performed regularly, monthly starting in 20s
  • perform same time each month
  • better after periods as breast tissue not at sensitive
  • easier in shower
  • in front of mirror to check for dimples or discoloration
  • layign in bed also because the flatten otu a bit
  • circular motion
  • also check in to armpits


Breast Biopsy

  • Definite test for diagnosis breast cancer
  • incisional, excisional or needle aspiration
  • fluid filled cyst can be done by needle aspiration
  • solid mass rewuires surgical approach
  • nurse provides information and support
  • pt might be depressed, in denial ect be supportive and non judgemental


Common therapeutic measures

  • Douching- Flooding the vagina with fluid, not regularly recommended-washes away natural elements that maintain PH, causing irritation and allergioc reactions ect.
  • antiseptic douching may be ordered prior to sx cauterization
  • Heat application- relieve pain, increase blood flow, stimulate rupture of abscess
  • Patient teaching- best way is mild soap and water daily. cotton pantie


Drug therapy



  • Injectable creams
  • suppositories
  • pills
  • topical creams
  • drug absorption is very quick
  • night time is best so patient ca be in bed and not moving around\
  • may wear pad to protect clothing


Different SX procedures

  • Depends on what needs to be done
  • laproscopic


key words

  • Metrorrhagis- spotting between periods
  • Menorrhagia- profuse or prolonged bleeding
  • Amenorrhea- absence of menses


  • reasons can be stress, pregnancy, exercise, meds or disorder


  • hormone dysfunction\
  • tumors
  • infections
  • contraseptive
  • coagulation disorders
  • systemic disease
  • endometrial hyperplasia
  • inflammatory process
  • causes of amenorrhewa: excessive wt loss, physical activity


vulvitis and viginitis

  • vulvitis- inflammation of the vulva
  • vaginitis- inflammation of vagina
  • causes and risks- candida albicans ( fungus, or yeast infction)
  • trichomonas vaginalis (protozoal infection)
  • S/S- swelling, itchyness, discharge vulvitis
  • vaginitis s/s:
  • complications: ascending infection to other reproductive organ
  • medical diagnosis- bsed on S/S and inspection of ulva and vagina
  • avoid sex until symptoms and antibiotics have left
  • cotton panties
  • sitz bath
  • clean everyday with sopa and water


Bartholin Gland Abscess


  • Microorganisma occlude the duct 
  • S/S- perineal pain , chills, malaise, purulent discharge,labial edema, fever
  • Complications-systemc infection
  • tx: oral anal;gesics
  • frequent sitz bath or hot wet packs
  • sx incision and drainage 
  • broad spectrum antibiotics
  • Nursing care:
  • tach basic parineal care
  • instruction to help patient comply eth treatment.



  • inflammation of cervix
  • causes:
  • infectious organisms
  • birthing
  • tampon use
  • acute or chronic from HPV
  • S/S:
  • usually asymptomatic
  • discharge
  • pain



  • inflammation of breast tissue in lactating women
  • S/S: redness, inflammation, pain, hard breast, fever, malaise, headache and tenderness. 
  • causes: inefective emptying, microorganisms
  • tx: hot showers, draining breast, pumping breast , analgesics, rest, antibiotics 1019 pt teaching box look at it.


Fibrocystic breast changes

  • exagerated response to hormones
  • common among women
  • who never given birth
  • had spotaneous abortion
  • Smooth round balls, possible discharge
  • S/S: during premenapausal phase, usually improves afterm menstrual cycle is over.
  • no specific cure
  • Danazol can be given but has bad side effects- reducing symtoms-- acne, edema hair growth is side effects
  • resticting chocolate, cofee vitamin D, low sodium diet, good support bra and reduce stress in life.
  • can be sx removed or aspirated 



  • affects all structures in pelvic area
  • tends to move up reproductive tract
  • moves up from vulva-in to fallopian tubes
  • major reproductive health issue
  • major cause for infertility
  • females have increased risk the more sexual partners they have
  • may be asymptomatic at fisrt
  • gradual discomfort
  • pain, foul odors, skin breakdown, pain during intercourse,  
  • may be discovered during sx during ectopic pregnancy, ovarian cyst removal
  • complications- ectopic pregnancy, infertility, disconfort
  • tx: analgesics. antibiotics , no sex for 3 wks
  • pg 1021 teaching box
  • warm compress, heating pad, analgesics



  • Endometrioum tissue grows too much out of pelvic area occurs in 10% of women
  • S/S:
  • abnormal periods, pain and discomfort, dyemenorrhea, dysparenuia
  • complications: hardening od endometrium 
  • constriction of the bowels, ureters, can cause partial or complete obstruction
  • tx: NSAID's
  • gonadothroph releasing hormone agonist
  • synthetic androgenic steroid
  • hysterectomy
  • SAS_ side effects-- inhibits production of gonadotrophic, facial hair growtth



  • 1024-1025 table 52.3 cysts
  • fluid filled sac usually on fallopian tube
  • can grow
  • common on fertility drugs
  • usually resolve on their own
  • tendency to form after ovulation
  • may burst
  • S/S; abnormal periods, dull aching feeling


  • Fibroid tumors

  • benign
  • 25% will develop
  • usually full of blood
  • kinda like vampires- they take blood from system
  • can grow in uterus linig or attached by a tail
  • most women are asymptomatic
  • menstrual changes in flow

abdominal enlargement

  • many need no tx
  • tumors atrophy after menstruation
  • IUD is contraindicated
  • BC may stimulate growth



  • Bulging of the bladder in to the vaginal wall
  • post op- must abstain fromm sex                          
  • foley or suprapubic catheter
  • cold packs
  • sitz bath
  • inform pt that vaginal sensation will return in a few months



  • pelvic floor muscles are weak, kegels
  • S/S: observation, palpation, pelvic disconfort. bladder infection, painful intercourse
  • medical tx:
  • kegels
  • pessary
  • anterior and posterior colporrhaphy to tighten vaginal wall
  • low residue diet
  • stool softners
  • increase fluids 


uterine prolapse

  • cervix clearly visible from vagina
  • 1st degree visible from vagina opening
  • 2nd degree vagina opened and visible
  • 3rd degree it is hanging out
  • cause:
  • supporting ligaments may be congenitally weak or become streched during pregnancy or injured during childbirth
  • S/S:
  • dyspareunia
  • backache
  • pelvic heavieness
  • complications:
  • trauma an dnecrosis in 2nd and 3rd degree
  • medical tx:
  • hysterectomy
  • pessaries
  • interventions
  • pesaries_ assessment by 24 hrs of placemetn
  • frequent examinations
  • report any discomfort
  • frequent care and cleaning


retroversion and retroflexion

anteversion and anteflexion of uteres

  • normally sits 45degree angle of vagina
  • retroversion-tilts back
  • retroflexion bends on itsself so like a king
  • anteversion- tilts foward
  • anteflexion leans foward on itself-folds
  • considered a tipped uterus- hard to get pregnant or infertility
  • common: weak pelic floor muscles
  • usually asymptomatic maybe pain with intercourse
  • medical tx: seldom possibly a pessaary
  • complications:
  • usually from another medical condition like PID or endometriosis
  • nursing care:
  • pessary care if one inserted


vaginal fistulas

  • pathway that does not belong
  • vesicovaginal fistula- between vagina and bladder
  • urehtroveginal- from bladder to urethra
  • rectovaginal- rectum to vagina
  • management of odor and drainage
  • sx often needed but not always effective
  • post op:
  • fol;ey
  • increase fluids


breast cancer

  • risks:
  • being white
  • african american die more
  • fam hx
  • being 50 or older
  • menarche at 11 or younger
  • having n1st child 30 or older
  • mutation of gene BRCA1 ort BRCA 2
  • 1 in every 8 or 9 women
  • prognosis:
  • 5 yr when confined is 96.8%
  • if spread  to sorrounding tissue 75.9%
  • if metastazised 20.6 %
  • S/S: usually painless unless effecting sorrounding tissue
  • late symtpms:
  • dimpling of skin
  • nipple discharge
  • nipple/skin retraction
  • edema
  • dilated blood vessels
  • ulceration
  • hemorrhage
  • medical tx:
  • lupectomy, simple masectomy, and radical masectomy
  • SERMS_ selective estrogen receptor modulators
  • used with ER-


Cervical Cancer

  • HPV or HIV
  • S/S early is asymptomatic
  • advanced cancer may also be asymptomatic until it causes
  • bloody discharge
  • medical tx:
  • depends on stage
  • mild dysplasia: loop electrosurgical exicion'localized carcinoma (in Situ) with lasert destructon, cryosurgery


ovarian cancer

  • depends on stage