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Flashcards in pregnancy shit Deck (60)
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biophysical profile

  • check on baby's well being
  • breathing pattern ect
  • ideal score 8-10
  • ultrasound


 when does fertilization take place?

  • when the sperm meets the ovum
  • only takes 1 sperm


presumptive signs of pregnancy?

  • Ammenorrhea
  • nausea
  • breast tenderness
  • deepening pigmentation (chloasma) primary in darker ppl
  • urinary frequency
  • quickening


probable signs of pregnancy

  • godwell's sign-softening of the cervix and vagina b/c of increased vaginal congestion.
  • chadwick's sign- purpulish, bluish discoloration of cervix, vagina, vulva b/c increased vascular congestion.
  • hegar's sign-softening of the lower uterine segment
  • mcdonalds sign-uterus flexing against cervix
  • braxton hicks contractions- irregular painless uterine contractions that begin in the 2nd trimester.


positive signs of pregnancy

  • audible fetal heartbeat- detected at 10 wks by fetal doppler
  • fetal movement felt by examiner
  • ultrasound visualization of fetus


1st trimester physiological changes

  • pigementation changes (chloasma)
  • enlarged abdomen
  • small wt gain
  • enlarged uterus presses on bladder


2nd trimester physiological changes

  • groin pain
  • sexual pleasure and desire increases
  • white discharge
  • orthostatic HPT
  • anemia
  • perineal itching
  • center of gravity changes
  • pressure on bladder and rectum
  • leg muscle spasm
  • mood swings
  • slowed GI motility
  • itchy skin
  • gingivitis
  • stuffy nose
  • enlarged breast
  • tingling fingers


3rd trimester physiological changes

  • tires easily
  • colostrum may leak from breast
  • voice changes
  • pressure on stomach and diaphragm
  • venous congestion
  • uterus drops


1 trimester labs

  • blood type
  • Rh factor
  • antibody screen
  • CBC
  • RPR
  • rubella titer
  • tb screening-ppd or serum blood test quantiferon
  • hep B
  • HIV
  • U/A and culture
  • pap
  • vaginal culture
  • chlamydia
  • gonorrhea
  • hemoglogin A1c
  • NIPT
  • CF/genetic markers


2nd trimester labs

  • serum alpha fetoprotein
  • blood glucose
  • amniocentesis
  • ultrasound


3rd trimester labs

  • GBS culture
  • real time U/S
  • doppler blood flow
  • cervical fetal fibronectin
  • repeat STI,CBC, RPR,  NST's, BPP, AFI



  • process of mitosis in sperm: sperm gives X or Y chromosome to determine sex
  • gametogenesis-begins at ovulation and is complete when fertilization happens.


wharton's jelly

  • covers and cushions the AVA and keeps them separate



  • develops from thromboblasts and envelops the amnion, embryo and yolk sac
  • thick membrane with villi on outer surface; villi or fingerlike projections from fetal portion of placenta


implantation of zygote

  • in the posterior upper portion of uterine wall


estrogen levels and functions

  • stimulates uterine growth
  • increases blood flow to the uterine vessels
  • increases skin pigmentation, vascular changes in skin/mucous membranes of nose/mouth, increases salivation.


breast changes due to what hormones?

  • estrogen and progesterone stimulate dev. of breast ducts to prep for lactation.


common signs of hydatidiform mole?

  • bleeding
  • rapid uterine growth
  • excess hyperemesis gravidarum
  • failure to detect fetal heart activity
  • unusually early development of GH
  • higher than expected Hcg 
  • distinct snowstorm pattern on ultrasound with no evidence of developing fetus


placenta previa

  • placenta in lower uterus instead of upper portion
  • painless bright red bleeding
  • no vaginal exam due to risk of bleeding


placents abruption

  • gradual or abrupt onset of pain and uterine tenderness
  • possible low back pain
  • uterine feels firm and boardlike
  • irratible, frequent contractions


preterm labor and bedrest teaching

  • record fetal kick counts daily
  • report fewer than 10 kicks in a 12 hr period



  • fetal movement felt by mother, usually at 16 wks


folic acid

  • helps prevent neural tube defects
  • 0-4 mos 400mcg or 0.4 mg
  • 4-9 mos 600-800 mcg or 0.6-0.8 mg


what causes heart burn in early pregnancy?

increased progesterone relaxes esophogeal sphincter


why is rhogam D immune globin given?

  • Given one erythorblastosis fetalis occurs- A condition that occurs when maternal anti-Rh antibodies cross the placenta and destroy fetal erythrocytes. 
  • Also given after amniocentesis. 


Non stress test

  • Is a test done to check fetal  health
  • It monitors the fetus heart rate with contractions 
  • Nonstress test means no stress is produce. 


Weight gain in pregnancy

  • Normal weight people should only gained 25 to 35 pounds 
  • Obese woman should only gained 11 to 20 pounds 


Ectopic pregnancy

  • S/S: Lower of Domino pain and light vaginal bleeding. 
  • It's a loping to Brookeshire 's; sudden severe lower abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, signs of hypovolemic shock, and shoulder pain. 
  • Treatment; priority is to control bleeding, no action, methotrexate to inhibit cell division, surgery to remove pregnancy from tube. 


Fetal circulation

  • AVA- Two arteries and a vein in umbilical cord to support fetus. 
  • Ductus Venosus- Diverts blood away from the liver as it returns from placenta. 
  • Foreman Ovale- Diverts blood from the right atrium directly to the left atrium rather than circulating to lungs. 
  • Ductus arteriosus- Diverts blood from pulmonary artery into aorta.



  • Human chorionic gonadotropin
  • Signals conception has occurred.