Sensorymotor 0-2 yrs- cordination of senses with motor response, sensory curiosity about world. language used for demand and cataloguing. object permanence developed.
preoperational 2-7 yrs- symbolic thinking, use of proper syntax and grammar to express full concepts. imagination and intuition are strong, but complex abstract thought still difficult. conservation developed.
Concrete operational 7-11 yrs- concepts attached to concrete situations. Time, space and quantity understood and can be applied, but not as indipendant concepts.
- Formal Operations 11+ - Theoretical, hypothetical, and counterfactual thinking. abstract logic and reasoning. Stragety and planningbecome possible. Concepts learned in one context can be applied to another.
Sigmund Freud's Psychosexual Stages
Oral Stage 0-1 yrs- Children derive pleasure from oral activities, including sucking and tasting. They like to put things in their mouths.
Anal Stage 2-3 yrs- Children begin potty training.
Phallic Stage 3-6 yrs- Boys are more attached to their mother, ahile girls are more attached to their father.
Latency Stage 6 yrs - puberty- Children spend more time and interact mostly with same sex peers.
Genital Stage beyond puberty- Individuals are attracted to opposite sex peers.
- Physiological Needs- Food, water, warmth, and rest.
Safety Needs- Security and safety.
Belogingness and love needs- intimate relationships, friends.
Esteem Needs- Prestige and feeling of acomplishment.
Self Actualization- achieving one's full potential, including creative activities.
Erickson's Theory of Development
infant-18 mos- Trust vs. mistrust
18m-3 yrs- Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
3-5 yrs Initiative vs. Guilt
5-13 yrs Industry vs. inferiority
13-21 yrs identity vs. role confusion
21-39 yrs intimacy vs. isolation
40-65 yrs generativity vs. stagnation
65 and older- ego integrity vs. despair
At what month does the posterior and anterior fontanelle close?
posterior- 2 months
Anterior- 9-18 mos
Baby weight doubles and triples by what age?
doubles at 6 mos
triples at 12 mos
Leading cause of death in toddlers?
Accident, unintentional injuries
Vitals for 4 yr old
- RR 20-30
- HR 80-120
Toddler with sleeping problems
encourage night light, favorite stuffed animal, or blanket.
sleeping position for baby
When do we offer pacifier to baby?
When sleeping only if they can latch well
Shoul baby sleep next to anybody?
Preschool Age BP
Age 3 parallel vs associative play?
Parallel is independent -side by side
Associative- some ocassional association
Imaginary friend nursing action?
- Invistigate, ask ?, mental health?
- normal for preschool age
- dont ask how well they play
infant to toddlers
put everything in their mouth
pull, push and squeeze
10 month old development
doesnt reconize object by name
cant turn pages of book
should be able to sit on own
Car seat safety
- secure carseat with seatbelt not just anchors
- keep rear facing until age 2 or length
15 Month Safety shit
- No popcorn/marshmallows
- no diaper powder
- dont store corosive sin glass
- dont put plants on ground
- dont place furniture by windows
- dont place infant in front seat, if needed rear facing and turn off airbag
Most appropriate toy for a 4 yr old is?
Infant should be able to lift head to chin briefly, head lag normal when lifted from supine, after 6 months significant head lag not normal.
12 months emerging pattern of behavior
- Motor: walks with one hand held, rises independantly: takes several steps.
Adaptive: picks up pellet with pincer action of thumb and forefinger, releases object to another person upon request.
- language: says "mama" , "dada" and a few similar words.
Social: plays simple ball game; makes postural adjustments to dressing.
15 month development
Motor: walks alone, crawls up stairs
Adaptive: makes tower of 3 cubes, makes a line with crayons, inserts pellet in bottle.
Language: Jargon: follows simple commandsa, may name a familiar object (ball).
Social: Indicates some desires or needs by pointing: hugs caregivers.
18 mos development
Motor: Runs stiffly, sits on small chair, walks up stairs with one hand held, explors drawers and wastebaskets.
Adaptive: makes tower of four cubes, imitates vertical stroke, imitates scribbling, dumps pellets from bottle.
Language: 10 words (average) names pictures, identifies 1 or more body parts.
Social: Feeds self, seeks help when in trouble, may complain when wet or soiled, kisses caregivers with pucker.
2 yrs development
- Motor: runs well, walks up and down stairs: one step at a time, climbs on furniture, jumps.
- Adaptive: tower of seven cubes ( 6 at 21mos), circular scribbling, imitates horix=zontal strokes, folds paper once imitatively.
- Language: puts 3 words together, (subject, verb, object),
- Social: handles spoon well, often tell immediate experiences, helps to undress, listents to stories with pictures, plays in parallel with other children.
2 1/2 yrs development
- Motor: goes up stairs alternating feet
- Adaptive: tower of nine cubes, makes vertical and horizontal strokes, but generally will not join them to make a cross. imitates circular stroke, forming a closed figure.
- Language: refers to self by pronoun 'I" knows full name
- Social: helps put things away, pretends in play
3 yrs development
- Motor: Rides tricycle: stands momentaarily on one foot
- Adaptive: tower of 10 cubes: imitates construction of bridge of 3 cubes, copies a circle, imitates a cross.
- Language: knows age and sex: counts 3 objects correctly, repeats 3 numbers or a sentence of 6 syllables.
- Social: plays simple games, ( cooperative play is highly imaginative) helps in dressing (unbottons, and puts shoues on) washes hands.
4 yrs development
- Motor; hops on 1 foot, throws ball overhead, uses scissors to cut out pictures, climbs well
- Adaptive: Copies bridge from model, imitates construction of "gate" of five cubes, copies cross and square, draws a man with 2 or 4 parts besides head, identifies longer of two lines.
- Language: counts 4 pennies accurately, tells a story.
- Social: plays with several children with the beginning of social interaction and role playing. goes to toilet alone.
5 yrs development