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Flashcards in female reproductive system Deck (44)
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1

the genital tissue is the same before it begins to change. The change depends on a testosterone product released in male fetuses called dihydrotesterone, DHT. The change is completed at week twelve. Without DHT, the genitals of the fetus will develop into female structures.

Homologous Sex Organs

2

secrete mucus for lubrication

vestibular glands

3

protect and cover some reproductive structures

labia majora

4

contain autonomic nervous system axons that stimulate arousal and sexual climax feeling

clitoris

5

Reproductive organs/gonads

ovaries

6

major hormones in the female

Estrogen and progesterone

7

gametes or eggs (ova, oocyte)

female Reproductive cells

8

union of sperm & egg =zygote

copulation, coitus, sexual intercourse

Fertilization

9

uterine tubes
uterus
vagina
clitoris
mammary glands

Accessory sex organs

10

Primary sex organs of the female

ovaries

11

Paired, on either sided of uterus

Responsible for secretion of hormones

Responsible for the production of ova (oocyte, egg), produced in cortex. Within the cortex are thousands of ovarian follicles.

Ovaries & Oogenesis

12

are surrounded by follicle cells

oocytes

13

During the fetal period, the oogonia start the process of meiosis, but they are stopped at prophase I. At this point, the cells are called

primary oocytes.

14

The process of oogenesis occurs in a female fetus before birth. At this time, the ovary contains primordial germ cells called oogonia, which are diploid

Oogenesis-Before Birth

15

At birth, the ovary of a female child is estimated to contain approximately 1.5 to 2 million primordial follicles within its cortex.

The primary oocytes in the primordial follicles remain arrested in prophase I until puberty

Oogenesis-Before Birth

16

time when a woman is nearing menopause, estrogen levels begin to drop, typically onset between 45 and 55 years

Perimenopause

17

one full year without menstruation

Menopause

18

ovaries are inactive, and no follicles develop

During childhood

19

some primordial follicles regress or break down. By the time she reaches puberty only about 400,000 primordial follicles remain.

Atresia occurs

20

the hypothalamus releases GnRH, which stimulates the ant. pit. to release FSH and LH (menarche).

At puberty

21

The levels of FSH and LH vary in a cyclical pattern and produce

monthly ovarian cycle

22

days 1–13 (28-day cycle). Follicular phase

day 14 of cycle, release of the secondary oocyte from a vesicular follicle.

Typically only one ovary ovulates each month

Ovulation

23

days 15–28 remaining follicle cells turn into a corpus luteum secretes progesterone and estrogen, builds up lining, prepare for implantation

functional for 10–13 days if the secondary oocyte is not fertilized (corpus luteum)

it regresses and becomes a corpus albicans

Luteal phase

24

Also called fallopian tubes, oviducts or uterine horns; extend laterally from both sides of the uterus toward the ovaries.

Lined with ciliated simple columnar that beat towards the uterus, peristaltic contractions of smooth muscle also helps move oocyte.

Uterine Tubes

25

finger-like projections off the end of uterine tubes

Fimbriae

26

In these tubes, the secondary oocyte is fertilized, and the pre-embryo begins to develop as it travels toward the uterus.

Travel time: about 5 to 6 days to reach the lumen of the uterus.

Once egg is ovulated, viability is only 12-24 hours.

uterine tubes

27

pre-embryo implants into the inner uterine wall and becomes connected to the lining, develops into the placenta

Site for implantation (uterus)

28

if an oocyte is not fertilized or after a baby is expelled, the muscular wall of the uterus contracts and sheds its inner lining as menstruation

Site for menstruation (uterus

29

Regions of uterus

fundus, body, cervix

30

endometrium (functional zone), myometrium (smooth muscle), perimetrium (serous)

Supports, protects, and nourishes the developing embryo/fetus

Ejects the fetus at birth after maternal oxytocin levels increase to initiate the uterine contractions of labor.

lining of uterus