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Flashcards in male reproductive system Deck (35)
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1

a complex set of ducts and tubules

a group of male accessory glands
penis, which is the organ of copulation

Accessory sex organs include

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testes

Primary gonads

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The gonads and the first portion of the duct system reside outside the body proper within a skin-covered sac.

Has thin skin layer and smooth muscle with 2 chambers. .

Scrotum

4

Testes are inside chambers.
The dartos & cremaster muscles used to regulate distance testes are from body. Shrinkage!

Sperm production is best at approx. 1 degree C. lower than body temp

Scrotum

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spaces surrounding the seminiferous tubules.

Interstitial spaces

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within interstitial spaces, produce hormones called androgens

Interstitial (Leydig) cells

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where spermatogenesis takes place.

Seminiferous tubules

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decreases FSH, keeps sperm production at normal levels

Secretes inhibin

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located within the tubes, provide cells with nutrients and stim. spermatogenesis

Sustentacular cells (nurse/Sertoli)

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Spermatogenesis & secondary sexual characteristics

(axillary and pubic hair)

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Lies mostly on the superior surface of the testis.

Internally, is a long, convoluted duct, approx. 4-5m in length.

Sperm reside in the epididymis for a period of time to become mature and fully motile.

expelled too soon, they lack the motility.

not ejected in a timely manner, the old sperm degenerate in the epididymis.

Damaged spermatozoa are recycled.

Epididymis

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Sperm enter when they leave the epididymis.

Thick-walled tube that travels through the inguinal canal, and within the pelvic cavity before it reaches the prostate gland.

Peristaltic contractions of the muscular walls help to move the sperm along its journey.

Some sperm are stored for a few days.

Unites with the seminal vesicle to form the ejaculatory duct, penetrates the prostate then empties into the urethra.

Ductus Deferens/Vas deferens

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Extends from the urinary bladder to the tip of the penis.

Used for both the urinary and reproductive systems.

Transports semen/sperm from the ejaculatory duct to the outside of the body

Urethra

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Conducts urine and semen to exterior

Smegma secretions (waxy) produced by prepuce

During arousal, parasympathetic stimulation dilates arterial blood vessels to erectile tissue to cause erection

Corpora cavernosa (2) and corpora spongiosum (1) surrounds urethra

Ejaculation is due to sympathetic stim.

penis

15

root, body/shaft, glans, prepuce/foreskin, external urethral orifice

Regions of the penis

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Conducts urine and semen to exterior

Smegma secretions (waxy) produced by prepuce

During arousal, parasympathetic stimulation dilates arterial blood vessels to erectile tissue to cause erection

Corpora cavernosa (2) and corpora spongiosum (1) surrounds urethra

Ejaculation is due to sympathetic stim.

penis

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activates sperm, provide nutrients, enzymes, lubrication, buffers acidity of urethral and vagina.

functions of semen

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combines with sperm from the testes to make up semen.

Seminal fluid from the accessory glands

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normally volume about 2 to 5 milliliters and contains approximately 20 to 500 million spermatozoa.

The average transit time of human spermatozoa—from their release in the seminiferous tubules to the ejaculate is about 2 weeks.

Semen

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seminal vesicles (60%)
prostate gland (30%)
bulbourethral glands (5%)
remaining 5% is sperm

The components of seminal fluid are produced by accessory glands:

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Paired, located on the posterior surface of the urinary bladder, merges with a vas deferens to form the ejaculatory duct.

Secrete a viscous, whitish-yellow alkaline fluid containing both fructose and prostaglandins.

Helps to regulate pH

Monosaccharide nourishes sperm as they travel

Prostaglandins promote widening and slight dilation of the cervix and muscular contractions in the vaginal wall

Seminal Vesicles (2)

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Paired, located on the posterior surface of the urinary bladder, merges with a vas deferens to form the ejaculatory duct.

Secrete a viscous, whitish-yellow alkaline fluid containing both fructose and prostaglandins.

Seminal Vesicles (2)

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Helps to regulate pH

Monosaccharide nourishes sperm as they travel

Prostaglandins promote widening and slight dilation of the cervix and muscular contractions in the vaginal wall

Seminal Vesicles (2)

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Walnut-shaped, encapsulated organ, located immediately inferior to the bladder. Encircles urethra.

Secretes a slightly milky fluid that is weakly acidic and rich in citric acid, seminalplasmin, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA).

citric acid is a nutrient for sperm health

seminalplasmin is an antibiotic that combats urinary tract infections

PSA acts as an enzyme to help liquefy semen following ejaculation

Prostate Gland

25

Walnut-shaped, encapsulated organ, located immediately inferior to the bladder. Encircles urethra.

Secretes a slightly milky fluid that is weakly acidic and rich in citric acid, seminalplasmin, and prostate-specific antigen (PSA).

Prostate Gland

26

Paired, pea-shaped glands located within the urogenital diaphragm on each side of the urethra.

Each gland has a short duct that projects into the base of the penis and enters the spongy urethra.

Secretion is a clear, alkaline, viscous mucin that forms mucus when mixed with water, protection & lubrication during sexual intercourse.

Bulbourethral Glands/ Cowper’s glands

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(hypothalamus) acts on ant. pit. and stim the release of LH and FSH.

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone

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(ant. pit.) causes secretion of testosterone by interstitial cells of testes and promotes maturation of sperm and secondary sexual characteristics in males.

Luteinizing Hormone

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: (ant. pit.) with testosterone targets sustentacular cells to promote spermatogenesis

Follicle Stimulating Hormone

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(testes) formation of gametes, secondary sexual characteristics.

Testosterone