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1

Conscious awareness of incoming sensory information is

sensation

2

Stimulus that reaches the cerebral cortex of the brain results in

sensation of that stimulus

3

Stimuli are detected by

receptors.

4

(temperature, pain, touch, stretch, and pressure)

receptors are distributed throughout the skin and organs.

general senses

5

(gustation, olfaction, vision, equilibrium, and hearing)

receptors are housed within complex organs in the head

special senses

6

Range in complexity from single-celled dendritic ending of a neuron to complex sense organs.

Monitor both external and internal conditions and conducts information about those stimuli to the CNS.

receptors

7

precise localization and sensitivity are easily determined.

small receptive field

8

only detects the general region of the stimulus.

broad receptive field

9

involved in maintaining our balance to keep our head upright.

remain constant

Tonic receptors

10

signal the increased pressure on our skin

(tune out after a while, acclimation)

phasic receptors

11

which is a reduction in sensitivity to a continually applied stimulus.

acclimation

12

receptors in skin or mucous membranes, open to outside of body

Special senses

exteroceptors

13

receptors located within walls of viscera

Interoceptors

14

receptors in skeletal muscle, tendons, joint capsules

Proprioceptors

15

Detect chemicals; specific molecules dissolved in fluid (odor/taste)

Chemoreceptors

16

Detect changes in temperature

Thermoreceptors

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Detect changes in light intensity, color, movement in light rays

Photoreceptors

18

Detect physical deformation, (touch, pressure, vibration, stretch)

Mechanoreceptors

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Detect changes within body structure

Baroreceptors

20

Detect tissue damage, pain receptors

Nociceptors

21

gustatory receptors are housed in specialized taste buds on the surface of tongue.

Taste buds lie along sides of epithelial projection (papillae), each bud contains 40 gustatory cells

Works with olfaction

sense of taste

gustation

22

on the anterior 2/3 of the tongue
don’t house taste buds, no sensory role

Filiform:

23

primarily on the tip and sides
contain only a few taste buds each

Fungiform

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(circumvallate): arranged in an inverted V on the posterior dorsal surface

least numerous yet largest, high # of taste buds

each is surrounded by a deep, narrow depression

Vallate

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extend as ridges on posteriolateral sides

house only a few taste buds during childhood, not well developed on the human tongue.

Foliate

26

The tongue detects five basic taste sensations:

salty: metal ions (sodium, potassium)
sweet: organic compounds (sugar)
sour: hydrogen ions from acids (lemon)
bitter: alkaloids (brussel sprouts, poisons)
umami: detects amino acids., pleasant taste, chicken-soup
Water: pharynx

Gustatory Discrimination

27

detect odors, bipolar neurons synapse with olfactory bulbs

Receptor cells

28

sandwich the olfactory nerves and sustain and maintain the receptors

Supporting cells

29

function as stem cells to replace olfactory epithelium components

Basal cells

30

(photoreceptors) in the eyes to detect light, color, and movement.

Visual receptors

31

provide a superficial covering over its anterior exposed surface

Conjunctiva

32

prevent foreign objects from coming into contact with eye

Eyebrows, eyelashes, & eyelids

33

keep the exposed surface moist, clean, and lubricated

Lacrimal glands

34

Lacks photoreceptors

Blind spot because no image forms there.

optic disc

35

lateral to the optic disc is a rounded, yellowish region of the retina, containing a pit called the fovea centralis (the area of sharpest vision). (contains the highest proportion of cones and almost no rods

Macula lutea

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space anterior to the lens and posterior to the cornea (aqueous humor)

between the iris and cornea

anterior cavity

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area behind the lens (vitreous humor)

is between the lens and the iris

posterior cavity

38

maintain shape of eye, thick gelatinous material

Vitreous humor

39

removes waste products, fluid

secreted into the posterior chamber, flows around lens, through pupil & into anterior chamber

drains via canal of Schlemm (scleral venous sinus)

Aqueous humor:

40

processed by the thalamus and then interpreted by visual association areas in the cerebrum.

Visual stimulus information

41

some axons from the optic nerve decussate.

optic chiasm

42

on each side then contains axons from both eyes.

The optic tract

43

conducts visual stimulus information

Each optic nerve

44

External Auditory Canal/Meatus

Pinna/Auricle

Helix/Antihelix

Tragus/Antitragus

Tympanic membrane

Function: helps to funnel sounds into canal

external ear

45

Contains an air-filled tympanic cavity.

Medially, a bony wall of the oval window and round window separates the middle ear from the inner ear.

Maintains an open connection with the atmosphere through the auditory tube (Eustachian tube).

Houses the auditory ossicles.
malleus, incus, and stapes

the middle ear

46

opens into the nasopharynx (upper throat) from the middle ear

air movement through this tube (as a result of chewing, yawning, and swallowing) allows the pressure to equalize on both sides of the tympanic membrane


Eustachian tube

47

Receptors sense hearing and equilibrium; housed in fluid-filled tubes/chambers

Membranous labyrinth (endolymph), bony labyrinth (perilymph)

Vestibule, semicircular canals, utricle, saccule, ampulla/cupula, maculae, otolith/statoconia

Cochlea; cochlear, tympanic and vestibular ducts; organ of corti, tectorial membrane

the inner ear

48

Rotation of the head causes endolymph within semicircular canal to push against the cupula covering the hair cells results in bending of the hairs the initiation of a nerve impulse.

Equilibrium