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Flashcards in urinary system Deck (40)
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ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra

Urinary tract

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kidneys, blood vessels

Urinary System Structures

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filter waste products from the bloodstream and convert the filtrate into urine.

kidneys

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Regulates the volume, composition and pH of body fluids, adjusts water loss, releases of EPO and renin

Removes excess water, electrolytes and other wastes (urea, urine)

Storage of urine and excretion of urine

Regulation of erythrocyte production.

As the kidneys filter the blood, they are also indirectly measuring the oxygen level in the blood

Urinary System General Functions

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depression, vessels & nerves enter/exit

Hilus (kidney)

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under capsule, location of glomerular capsules

Cortex (kidney)

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renal pyramids, papilla, columns

Medulla (kidney)

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minor calyx, major calyx, renal pelvis to ureter

Renal Sinus (kidney)

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Located on either side of vertebral column, left slightly superior, retroperitoneal

Reddish brown color, bean shaped with smooth surface.

Tough renal capsule (fibrous)

kidney

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renal artery  segmental  interlobar  arcuate  interlobular  afferent arterioles glomerulus efferent arterioles capillaries

blood supply to the kidney (Arteries)

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from capillaries interlobular arcuate interlobar renal vein

blood supply to the kidney (Veins)

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peritubular (cortex) or vasa recta (medulla)

blood supply to the kidney (veins)

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The functional filtration unit in the kidney.

Kidneys house approx 2.5 million nephrons.

Filtration is mostly a passive process based on solute size and conc. gradients

Blood to be filtered arrives at the nephron via the glomerulus (capillary)

Types: Cortical or Juxtamedullary

Nephrons

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Consists of the following components:

renal corpuscle (Bowman’s or glomerular capsule w/ glomerulus)

proximal convoluted tubule
nephron loop

distal convoluted tubule

renal tubule: PCT, loop of Henle, DCT

Nephrons

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Actively reabsorb almost all nutrients (glucose, a.a., f.a.), electrolytes, and any plasma proteins.

Approximately 60% to 65% of the water in the tubular fluid is reabsorbed by osmosis.

The solutes and water are returned to the blood via the peritubular capillaries

Proximal Convoluted Tubule

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: reabsorbs water from surrounding tissue

descending limb (nephron loop)

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Na+ and Cl- are reabsorbed in the surrounding tissue

ascending limb (nephron loop)

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Begins at the PCT, extends into the medulla

As solute conc. of interstitial fluid increases due to ascending limb release a conc. gradient is produced that pulls water out of the descending limb.

Thin portions of both limbs are permeable to water.

nephron loop

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Begins at the end of the nephron loop.

Impermeable to solutes, must use active transport to pass ions (pumps regulated by aldosterone)

Reabsorption of water occurs here under the influence of two hormones:

Distal Convoluted Tubule

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increase DCT absorption of Na+ and water, increase loss of K+, secreted by adrenal gland

Aldosterone (distal convoluted tubule)

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reabsorption of water, increase blood volume at the kidney, secreted by post. pit

Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) (distal convoluted tub

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If an individual is well hydrated, the collecting ducts simply transport the tubular fluid into the calyxes pelvis  ureters

However, if an individual is dehydrated, water conservation must occur, and more-concentrated urine is produced
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ADH may act on the collecting duct epithelium, making it more permeable to water from the tubular fluid.

Collecting Tubules and Collecting Ducts

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Three tunics of the ureters

mucosa, muscularis, and adventitia

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Long, fibromuscular tubes that conduct urine to the bladder. Each tube averages 25 cm in length and is retroperitoneal

originate at the renal pelvis and exit the hilum of the kidney

Peristaltic contractions are used to move urine to bladder.

Ureters

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Expandable, muscular sac, reservoir for urine. Positioned immediately superior and posterior to the pubic symphysis.

Urinary Bladder

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contacts the uterus posterosuperiorly and with the vagina posteroinferiorly

Females (urinary bladder)

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contacts the rectum posterosuperiorly and is immediately superior to the prostate gland.

Males (urinary bladder)

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: immovable portion of the urinary bladder.

Trigone (urinary blader)

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mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and adventitia

Four tunics (urinary bladder)

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Is a retroperitoneal organ and is lined with transitional epithelium

Urinary Bladder