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Flashcards in Figure it out, man Deck (37):
1

What are some potential side effects of cyclophosphamide?

Hemorrhagic cystitis
Bladder cancer
Sterility
Myelosuppression

2

What is a more common nephrotic syndrome, membranous or membranoproliferative?

Membranous is more common

MPGN can be either nephritic or nephrotic

3

What is the next step if a FAST exam is inconclusive after blunt abdominal trauma?

Diagnostic Peritoneal Lavage

4

A patient has occasional flushing, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, a right-sided valve issue, and occasional bronchospasms. What does this person likely have? What else could be going on?

Carcinoid syndrome

Niacin (B3)...dermatitis, diarrhea, and dementia

5

How can central retinal artery occlusion be treated?

Intra-arterial thrombolytics w/in 4-6 hours
Ocular massage and high flow oxygen

6

What causes the D-xylose test to have low D-xylose in the urine?

Celiac's disease and other proximal small intestine malabsorption diseases

7

What is the most premalignant colon polyp?

Villous

8

How does tamoxifen work? What is a potential side effect?

It is a Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator (SERM)...it has both agonist and antagonist effects

It can cause endometrial cancer

9

What differentiates an acute leukemoid reaction from CML?

Leukemoid reaction has an elevated Leukocyte Alkaline Phosphatase (LAP)
CML has a decreased LAP

10

Old lady has vulvar excoriations, and skin is thin, dry, and white. What should be done? What is likely? What can be done?

Vulvar punch biopsy...possibly lichen sclerosus et atrophicus

Treat with topical corticosteroids

11

An older person has periods of decreased alertness and visual hallucinations and has had balance issues. What should be considered?

Lewy-body dementia

12

What can cause hypotension after an epidural is placed? How can it be prevented? How can it be managed?

Blockage of sympathetic nerves responsible for vascular tone

Aggressive IV fluid expansion prior to placement

Put mom on her left side (improves venous return); fluids; pressors

13

A child is found to have elevated lead levels on capillary blood draw?

Draw venous lead level

Undetectable --> nothing to do
5-44 --> redraw in 1 month
44-69 --> DMSA
70+ --> dimercaprol + EDTA

14

What happens physiologically with ARDS?

Decreased lung compliance
Impaired gas exchange
Pulmonary hypertension

15

When is trihexyphenidate used?

Newly diagnosed Parkinson's patients with tremors as only real concern

16

What is affected with GBS?

Peripheral nerve demyelination

17

Which lung cancer secretes PTHrP?

Squamous cell carcinoma

18

How can lactose deficiency be diagnosed?

Hydrogen breath test after lactose ingestion

19

When can 'Odds Ratio' and 'Relative Risk' be considered the same?

Rare diseases

20

Where do most PEs come from?

Proximal deep veins: iliac, femoral, popliteal

21

A person with expected HIV presents with an illness. What should be done?

Treat the illness...wait to start HAART until after well (risk of immune reconstruction syndrome)

22

What is the most common cause of erysipelas?

Strep pyogenes (GAS)

23

What is the first approach to treating alzheimer disease?

Cholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, rivastigmine, galantamine)

24

Young, otherwise healthy young man has chronic low back pain that is worse at night and better with activity + elevated ESR = ?

Ankylosing spondylitis...can have restricted chest wall motion

25

Thin, green, vaginal discharge that smells...

Trichomoniasis (flagellated organism)...treat couple with metronidazole

26

What can be given to measles patients to reduce morbidity/mortality?

Vitamin A...Immune enhancement + GI and respiratory epithelium regeneration

27

What is the believed cause of vitiligo?

Autoimmune

28

A Marfanoid patient has a pheochromocytoma and elevated calcitonin in the presence of a hard thyroid nodule. What does this patient likely have? What else has to be considered?

MEN2B (RET-oncogene)

Mucosal (tongue, eyelids, lips) and intestinal neuromas

29

What is the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia in kids (less than 20yo)? Adults?

Kids get staph a infections

Adults get pseudomonas infections

30

How does risperidone cause decreased libido?

Decreased dopamine activity in the tuberoinfundibular pathway

31

A patient has a predominant mood disorder...but has multiple episodes of schizophrenia like symptoms in the absence of mood disorder. What is the diagnosis?

Schizoaffective disorder

32

How is candida vaginitis treated?

Oral fluconazole

33

How are absence seizures treated?

Ethosuximide; OR
Valproic acid

34

What are some possible effects of nephrotic syndromes?

Hyperlipidemia
Increased coagulability

35

Patient has conjunctivitis with corneal neovascularization (pannus). What is the diagnosis?

Chlamydia trachomatis serotype A-C...Trachoma

36

What is the most common form of kidney disease with HIV?

FSGS

37

What can be used to help with ALS?

Riluzole...glutamate inhibitor