Flashcards in Final Deck (51)
What are the fundamental relations that make up a household
Male and female. Master and slave. Parent and children. Man is a political animal the state is prior to the family.
What is the difference between an instrument of production and an instrument of action? What is a Slave? Why?
Instrument of production is the means whereby something else is created a loom an instrument of action is that by which action takes place a bed a table possession a slave is a possession and thus an instrument of action not production
What is an instrument of production?
An instrument of production is the means whereby something else is created.
What is an instrument of action
Instrument of action is that by which action takes place a bed a table its a Possession.
What is a slave Why?
A slave is a possession and thus an instrument of action not production
How does Aristotle argue that slavery is natural how would you critique his argument
Some are marked out for slavery and others for rule from birth when is inferior to the other as the body is inferior to the soul. The soul is your essence
What is the difference between being a slave by nature and the slave by law
Slavery by law is the slavery that follows from conquest (conquered by the law)
How does Aristotle distinguish the role of the father over his children with the rule of a husband over his wife
Father equals Royal king shit
Husband = constitutional
What fundamental error does Aristotle assert that Plato made in his republic
Plato tried to make a unified state all distinctions are lost but it is of the nature of the state that there are distinctions!
What does Aristotle predict would be the effect of wives and children in common in a community
The watering down of true affections no one would say my son or my father
What problem does Aristotle foresee as he envisions a society in which people hold all property in common
#1 complaining those who receive much and little #2 better to give of one's own freely no liberality in communism belongs to everyone so no one is giving #3 loss of the plurality of a healthy society or individuality #4 who runs a state? where is their authority?
How does Aristotle respond to the claim that a communal approach to life would tend to reduce crime because no one would be in need?
Want is not the sole incentive to crime. Also men who wish to enjoy themselves the cure is moderate possessions and occupation they wish to cure desire going to beyond necessities of life the cure is habits of temperance
Based on the above distinction Aristotle identifies six types of governmental systems identify the six and indicate the distinctive features of each.
#1 monarchy: one ruler for the good of the people #2 Tyranny: one ruler for the good of the ruler #3 aristocracy: rule by the few for the good of the many #4 oligarchy: rule by the few for the good of the few #5 Constitution: rule by the many for the good of the many #6 democracy: ruled by the money for the good of the majority
What distinguishes oligarchy from democracy
Oligarchy really means rule by the wealthy whether they are the few or the many democracy means ruled by the poor.
What does Aristotle identify as the principal purpose of the state and from this who should be those that have the greatest Share in it's administration
The principal purpose of the state is to facilitate the experience of the good life. The state is the union of families and villages in a perfect self sufficing life by which we Mean a happy and honorable life. Those who contribute most to such a society have a greater share in it than those who have the same or greater freedom or nobility of birth but are inferior to them in political virtue
What problems does Aristotle identified with locating the power of the state in the poor the wealthy the good
If the poor they will merely confiscate the property of the rich if the rich they were merely oppress the poor if the good all else will be deprived of political power if the law itself is evil and demonical.
Aristotle considers the question "what it is more advantageous to be ruled by the best man or buy the best law" what are the chief arguments in favor of each position?
Best man: a man can consider individual cases more precisely then a rule. Just as a physician may need to change his prescription, so it came can change with better insight.
Best law: frees rule from the passion and prejudice of an individual. Beyond that an assembly is better able to decide individual cases than one man. In addition, a group is less likely to be corrupted than an individual. Rule thus began with monarchs, but has generally involved to constitutional or democratic forms.
Speech or logos involves two human
First the power to know words are central to knowledge second the power to share a common moral understanding
Out of common understanding comes…
Community love shared values and loyalty
This grows to the… Where there is trust on our mutual support the ideal
Polis which is the state or regime which greatly exceeds empire, despotism, power.
City can never be Universal this is no…
Cosmopolis Universal City
There must always be?
other cities, foreign-policy, friend and enemy are unavoidable categories of political life
City must be so small so...?
So common experiences can be shared and remembered he criticizes the type with which we are most familiar the uS
Why must each participate in ruling offices
Rule and be ruled in turn, freedom only comes through the exercise of political responsibility, freedom is informed by sense of restraint, not all things are permitted, thus a critique of radical democracy or populist government
What is the most controversial aspect of the opening chapters of Aristotle
Slavery is natural forced or things that people do it to themselves basic inequality of human beings contra Thomas Jefferson
Tell me about slavery
Those captured in war are not natural slaves slavery is not just for non-Greeks slavery is for those who cannot rule their passions ruling ones passions is necessary for freedom if you cannot do this you are slave by nature and require the institution of slavery for your own good.
Is a leadership preserved for those who have the requisite self-control?
Is there a natural aristocracy?
How does PoleMarcus define justice?
Paula Marcus says to do good to friends and harm to enemies
How does Socrates respond to Paul Marcus
Socrates says don't repay evil for evil who is your friend our own idea of justice or who and enemy is, is clouded in the weather noetic effect of sin clouds are judgment
What is glaucon's definition of justice?
The ring gyges -prefer injustice to justice the ring or justice power opportunity lets you be invisible, shows the depravity of man the life of the just is more advantageous. What about the advantages of the unjust?