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Flashcards in Final Deck (71):


National Republicans, formed in opposition to President Jackson's policies. Favored govt. intervention in nation.



Jackson's party, popular among farmers, urban workers and immigrants. advocated westward expansion, but opposed the national bank


chattel slavery

known as traditional slavery, named this because people were treated like chattel (personal property) of owner.


Slave Power conspiracy

believed political power held by slave owners in the national govt. / there was an argument that these group of white, rich slave owners had seized political control over the treatment of slaves.


pro-slavery argument

some theorists like John C. Calhoun believed slavery made for a more stable society.



in exchange for slaves' labor and obedience, masters provided basic care and necessity-guidance for a childlike dependent people. /attack on capitalism


popular sovereignty

people who settled the territories would decide for themselves slavery's fate


Manifest Destiny

many Americans believed that they had a God-given right to spread their civilization across the continent./ latest justification for white settlers to take the land they coveted.


Free soil/free labor

territory in which slavery would be prohibited/
hardworking, self-reliant free men



system of ideas and ideals, one that forms the basis of economic or political theory and policy


Know-nothings (American Party)

started out as secret society, When questioned they would answer "I know nothing", became known as that group. / became anti-immigrant party


Border ruffians

pro-slavery activists from Missouri/ 1844 crossed state border into Kansas Territory to force acceptance of slavery there.


Emigrant Aid Society

promoted settlement from free states or slave states


Lecompton constitution

written in response to the anti-slavery position. / enshrined slavery in proposed


Black republicanism

blacks associated with or voting for the Republican party


Anaconda plan

emphasized the blockade of the southern ports, called for an advance down the Mississippi river to cut the south in two.


minie ball/rifling

soft lead bullet, caused more damage than regular bullets cos it went straight through intended target- shattering bones.


Confederate conscription

passed first draft, all able-bodied white males between the ages of 18-35 were liable to serve in the rebel army.


Union conscription

offered bounties and bonuses for enlistment in army. freed slaves could enlist in Union.


commutation fees

created to keep substitution fees low. pay $300 and up to escape the draft, it was intended to raise money for the war effort.
Believed to at least get money out of the unwilling rather than have unwilling troops fight.


20 negro exemption

exempted 1 white man on every plantation with 20 or more slaves. ensured safety for white women and to see that slaves tended to crops



Democrats located in North who opposed the Civil War. Republicans started calling antiwar Democrats "Copperheads", likening them to the venomous snake. The Democrats accepted the label, reinterpreting the copper "head" as the likeness of Liberty, which they cut from copper pennies and proudly wore as badges


habeas corpus

constitutional guarantees that protect citizens from arbitrary arrest and detention.



the national currency: paper money


contraband of war

term used to describe new status for certain escaped slaves those associated with Union forces


Lincoln's 10% plan

a southern state could be readmitted into the Union once 10 percent of its voters swore an oath of allegiance to the Union.


Johnson's Reconstruction Plan

He returned confiscated property to white southerners, issued hundreds of pardons to former Confederate officers and government officials, and undermined the Freedmen’s Bureau by ordering it to return all confiscated lands to white landowners. Johnson also appointed governors to supervise the drafting of new state constitutions and agreed to readmit each state provided it ratified the Thirteenth Amendment, which abolished slavery


black codes

codes sought to keep ex-slaves subordinate to whites by subjecting them to every sort of discrimination. Codes barred blacks from jury duty and not a single southern state granted any black the right to vote.


Confederate brigadiers

commanded brigades while Federal brigadiers sometimes led divisions as well as brigades, particularly in the first years of the war. These generals also often led sub-districts within military departments, with command over soldiers in their sub-district


Ku Klux Klan

social club of confederate veterans that quickly developed into a paramilitary organization supporting Democrats. Went through a series of violence, senseless acts against the Republicans.



term for runty horses and low-down, good-for-nothing rascals.



Northerner who moved to the South after the American Civil War, especially during the Reconstruction era in order to profit from the instability and power vacuum that existed at this time.


Radical Republican

during and after the American Civil War, a member of the Republican Party committed to emancipation of the slaves and later to the equal treatment and enfranchisement of the freed blacks.


Tariff of Abominations

protect industries in the northern United States which were being driven out of business by low-priced imported goods by taxing them, designed to keep imports out.


Bank War

political struggle that developed over the issue of rechartering the Second Bank of the United States (BUS) during the Andrew Jackson administration


Indian Removal Act

President Andrew Jackson wanted to portray Indians as savages, thinks it's best to move the Indians far away. Also claimed the removal would save the Indians from extinction. The act granted $500,000 to relocate eastern tribes west of Mississippi.


Nat Turner's Revolt

biggest slave uprising in the American South, rebel slaves killed up to 65 white folk. the rebellion sparked widespread fear in white militia, causing them to execute 200 slaves believed to have been involved in the rebellion. This revolt led to passing laws against educating blacks and limiting black rights.


US Mexican War

first U.S. armed conflict fought on foreign soil.
President Polk believed the US had manifest destiny which encouraged the US to spread across the continent. By the end Mexico had lost abut 1/3 of its territory.


Wilmot Proviso

to eliminate slavery in any territory gained from the Mexican War.


Compromise of 1850

preserved the Union and peace for a time/

*California admitted as a free state
• Texas gave up its claims to lands disputed with New Mexico
• Slave trade in D.C. was banned, but slavery was legal
• Popular sovereignty in Mexican Cession lands
• Texas was paid $10 million for land lost
• A new, tougher Fugitive Slave Law of 1850


Uncle Tom's Cabin

Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england's view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.


Kansas-Nebraska Bill

a compromise law in 1854 that suspended the Missouri Compromise and left it to voters in Kansas and Nebraska to determine whether they would be slave or free states. the law exacerbated sectional tensions when voters can to blows over the question of slavery in Kansas. It was very controversial, supported by President Pierce and not supported by Douglass


Bleeding Kansas

nickname given to the Kansas territory because of the bloody violence there between those who wished it to enter the Union as a free state and those who fought for slavery in the territory ("border ruffians")


Dred Scott decision

Issues: Could Scott- a slave, bring a law suit?
Chief Justice said no, he had no legal standing.
Scott Was not free have living in free territories, still a slave.


Hammond's "Cotton is King"

Expression used by Southern authors and orators before the Civil War to indicate the economic dominance of the Southern cotton industry, and that the North needed the South's cotton. In a speech to the Senate in 1858, James Hammond declared, "You daren't make war against cotton! ...Cotton is king!".


Cotton Kingdom

Areas in the south where cotton farming developed because of the high demand for cotton


Olmsted's Free Labor Ideology

1. free labor> efficient than slave labor
2. slavery undermined dignity of manual work
3. inhibited educational and social improvement
4. stratified wealth (rich got richer while poor got poorer)


Confederate Constitution

similar to U.S. Constitution, govt. denied tariffs and internal improvements, laws protected slavery in territories


gag rule

strict rule passed by pro-southern Congressmen in 1836 to prohibit all discussion of slavery in the House or Representatives


Napoleonic model of warfare

battle tactic where cavalry units could quickly close on infantry units before the horsemen could be overwhelmed with musket fire. They were charge at the enemy forcing them to form in squares and then flee.


seige warfare

kept Union navy from moving up and down the river


pragmatic abolitionism

winning the war hinged on taxing slave labor from Confederates (no moral critiques)


John Brown

An abolitionist who attempted to lead a slave revolt by capturing Armories in southern territory and giving weapons to slaves, was hung in Harpers Ferry after capturing an Armory


Harper's Ferry

John Brown's scheme to invade the South with armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, northern abolitionists; seized the federal arsenal; Brown and remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged


Crittenden-Johnson Resolution

US fought with no intention of overthrowing or interfering with rights or established institutions of seceded states, but only to defend and maintain the supremacy of the constitution and preserve the nation.


Lincoln's Election

Written in a spirit of reconciliation toward the rebellious states, ___________ touched on several topics: first, his pledge to "hold, occupy, and possess the property and places belonging to the government"—including Fort Sumter, which was still in Federal hands; second, his argument that the Union was indissolvable, and thus that secession was impossible; and third, a promise that while he would never be the first to attack, any use of arms against the United States would be regarded as rebellion, and met with force. The inauguration took place on the eve of the American Civil War, which began soon after with the Confederate attack on Fort Sumter.


Caning of Charles Sumner

May 22, 1856: Preston Brooks came into the Senate with his cane and started beating Charles Sumner until he was unconscience. This was the first type of violence shown about sectionalism


Fort Sumter

Site of the opening engagement of the Civil War. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina had seceded from the Union, and had demanded that all federal property in the state be surrendered to state authorities. Major Robert Anderson concentrated his units at Fort Sumter, and, when Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861, Sumter was one of only two forts in the South still under Union control. Learning that Lincoln planned to send supplies to reinforce the fort, on April 11, 1861, Confederate General Beauregard demanded Anderson's surrender, which was refused. On April 12, 1861, the Confederate Army began bombarding the fort, which surrendered on April 14, 1861. Congress declared war on the Confederacy the next day.


Battle of Fredericksburg

Extreme folly committed by Army of the Potomac General Ambrose Burnside, who marched wave after wave of troops across open ground into the teeth of Confederate batteries ensconced on the high ground of Marye's Heights on Dec. 13, 1862. More than 12,000 Union soldiers died, compared to less than 6,000 Confederates.


Battle of Vicksburg

General Grant led the Union forces in the Battle of Vicksburg. He defeated two Confederate armies and destroyed the city, this was across the river near Vicksburg, Mississippi. Five days later they had complete control of the Mississippi.


South's cotton embargo

restricted the Confederate economy


Morrill Act

Act by which "land grant" colleges acquired space for campuses in return for promising to institute agricultural programs


Richmond Bread riots

Women in Richmond confront Governor Letcher (Virginia) about high prices of food. He offered no solution, so they turned into an angry mob and start rioting. Jefferson Davis shows up, and the ringleaders get arrested.


NYC draft riots

The poor were drafted disproportionately, and in New York in 1863, they rioted, killing at least 73 people.


emancipation proclamation

issued by Lincoln that freed the slaves in the Confederacy, but not in the Border states; really didnt do anything because the slaves were out of Lincoln's jurisdiction


Sherman's Special Orders No. 15

Military orders issued by General Sherman on January 16, 1865, that confiscated land along the Atlantic Coast in South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida to be settled by freed slaves and blacks. The order was revoked by Andrew Johnson later that year.


13th Amendment

Abolition of slavery, except as punishment for a crime.


14th Amendment

Citizenship, state due process, applies Bill of Rights to the states, revision to apportionment of Representatives, Denies public office to anyone who has rebelled against the United States


15th Amendment

Suffrage no longer restricted by race


Reconstruction Acts

(1867) act placing Southern states under military rule and barring former supporters of the Confederacy from voting.


Johnson's Impeachment

Andrew Johnson's impeachment was the result of Stanton's dismissal by the President, this was the last straw for the House Republicans. Johnson was just barely acquitted. As a result for the rest of his term he was powerless to alter the course of Reconstruction and the country.