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Flashcards in Final Deck (27):

public health v. other nursing

public health
- focus is on aggregates [groups]
- focus is on prevention and health
- it is multidisciplinary
- it is public, open, and accessible
- care d/o the greatest good for the greatest number
- intervention w/ context of pt. [upstream]
other nursing
- focus on individuals
- focus on disease or illness
- works in silos or just providing nursing care v. interdisciplinary
- private and personal
- goal is to provide optimum health for each individual
- intervention w/ pt. [downstream]


social determinants of health

income and social status
- the greater the gap b/w the richest and poorest people, the greater the diff. in health education
- low education levels are linked w/ poor health, +stress, + LO self-confidence... there are exceptions
physical env't
- living situation and employment/working conditions
social support networks
- greater support from families, friends, + communities = better health
- culture
-- customs + traditions + beliefs of family + community all affect health genetics + gender
- genetics- inheritance plays a part in determining lifespan, healthiness + likelihood of developing certain illnesses
- men + women suffer from diff. types of disease at diff. ages
personal behavior + coping skills
- diet, activity, lifestyle choice, coping skills
health services
- access + use of services that prevent + treat disease influences health


Lillian walk + mary brewster

1893: began visiting the poor in NYC lower east side
established henry st. settlement which later become the visiting nurse service in NYC established settlement houses and neighborhood centers that were hubs for healthcare + social welfare programs


mary breckinridge

1952: established frontier nursing service that serves rural pop.'s in Appalachia
nurses trained in nursing, public health, + midwifery
led to dramatically improved pregnancy outcomes for this pop.


primary prevention

prevents disease from happening
e.g. immunizations, seat belts, healthy diet + exercise


secondary prevention

disease if found early, when tx is more effective and disability is minimal
disease may be present but may not yet be symptomatic
EARLY tx or management reduced burden of disease
e.g. BP, diabetes, scoliosis


tertiary prevention

restoration of optimal functioning disease or injury
- prevent damage + pain from disease
- slows down the disease
- prevents complications
- gives better care to people w/ the disease
- makes people w/ disease healthy again + able to do what they used to do
e.g. cardiac rehab


stages of change

- no intention on changing behavior
- aware problem exists but w/ no commitment to act
- intent on taking action to address the problem
- active modification of behavior maintenance
- sustained change
- new behavior replaces old
- fall back to old pattern of behavior


domains of teaching

cognitive [knowledge; problem-solving
- e.g. lectures, programmed instruction
affective [attitudes; values]
- e.g. discussion, role-playing, videos
psychomotor [performance of skills
- e.g. demonstration, drill, practice sessions


natural history of disease

understanding the characteristic natural hx of a diseases enables healthcare providers to anticipate prognosis + to ID opportunities for prevention, management, + control
- incubation: interval b/w invasion by agent + 1st s/s
- communicable: interval during which infectious agent may be transferred from infected person to others
- prodromal: early, often non-specific, symptom of disease


patient 0

the first person to become sick w/ a illness that other have also become sick w/



occurs when an infectious disease spreads rapidly to many people



it is a global disease outbreak



it is when a disease occurs in greater numbers than expected in a community or region or during a season



it is regularly found among particular people or in a certain area
e.g areas where malaria is endemic


clara barton

involved in rural nursing service > town and country nursing service which provided home care outside urban area
involved in the red cross house


types of immunity

- active [production of antibodies]
-- via development of the disease, or immunization
- passive immunity [antibodies passed from another human]
-- e.g. maternal antibodies



has significant effect on quality or length of life
detection and treatment during asymptomatic period yields better results than treating when sx.'s appear
- reliability of screening method
-- e.g. observer variation, inconsistency in the instrument
- validity or accuracy of screening method
-- e.g. sensitivity and specificity of tool to disease/condition
- ethics and screening
-- cost, false positives/negatives, tx. availability


phases of a disaster

pre-impact [disaster preparedness]
- risk assessment, resources inventory, education and preparedness, warning opportunities
- setting up a communication protocol is essential
impact [disaster response]
- roles of nurse: triaging, prioritizing care, arranging for transporting those needing immediate care to medical facilities, other [e.g. first aid]
post-impact phase [disaster recovery]
- longest phase
- epidemic and sanitation controls are imp. aspects of the recovery
- roles of nursing: counseling, home health care, education, reassessment of the health care needs of the affected pop.



it is the deliberate release of viruses, bacteria, or other agents used to cause illness or death in people, animals, or plants
occurs b/c agents are available + relatively easy to manufacture, has psych, impacts, can overwhelm existing resources


category A agents

high-priority agents including organisms that pose a risk to national security b/c they:
- can be easily disseminated or transmitted from person to person
- result in high mortality rates and have the potential for major public health impact
might cause public panic and social disruption
- requires special action for public health preparedness
e.g. anthrax, smallpox, ebola


category B agents

2nd highest priority agents include those that are:
- moderately easy to disseminate
- result in moderate morbidity rates and low mortality rates
- requires specific enhancement of CDC's diagnostic capacity + enhanced disease surveillance
e.g. food/water safety threats [e. coli, salmonella], ricin toxin, staph., viral encephalitis


category C agents

3rd highest priority agents include emerging pathogens that could be engineered for mass dissemination in the future b/c of:
- availability
- ease of production and dissemination
- potential for high morbidity and mortality rates and major health impact
e.g. nipah virus, hantavirus


notification procedures for local + state public health dept.'s

local health officer
local law enforcement
state health department


factors associated w/ risk for violence

- low SES
- involvement in gangs
- drug dealing
- access to guns
- community exposure to violence
- substance use
- peer pressure
- poor impulse control
- hx. of mental health problems
- high levels of stress
- less than 30 y of age
- hx. of intergenerational abuse
- social isolation
- verbal threatening of children by parents
- high levels of family stress
- 2+ children


levels of violence prevention

- schools or community center + after-school programs
- organize parenting classes
- assess + evaluate any unexplained bruises or injuries of any individual
- screen all pregnant women for potential abuse
- when dealing w/ victims of abuse develop a trusting relationship + focus on the client
- refer to mental health professionals for long-term assistance
- restorative justice for those convicted of crime and their victims/communities


lyme's disease