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Flashcards in QUIZ 2 Deck (17):

population pyramid

gathers pop. stats + represents the internal distribution of a pop.
data is divided by gender and age; age bracket are set into 3 categories [pre-reproductive, reproductive, post-reproductive]
uses: predictor of a pop.'s future, record of its past


global burden of disease

measured in DALYs [disability-adjusted life year]; it is the overall disease burden combining mortality and morbidity into a single number
e.g. 1 DALY could equal:
- 1 y lost due to early death
- 1.67 y w/ blindness
- 5.24 significant malaria episodes
US ranks in the low-to-med. rank in DALYs, the continent of Africa ranks in the high rank in DALYs


united nations [UN]

an agency providing global health services via:
- WHO [provides tech support + health services; sets int'l standards of health; coordinates health projects; GOAL: highest possible level of health for all citizens throughout the world]
-- subdivisions: Pan American Health Org'n [PAHO], other regional offices
- UNICEF [current priorities for child.: child survival + development, protection, and social inclusion (violence reduction)]


non-governmental organizations

are designated as private voluntary org'n
include humanitarian + professional org'n concerned w/ global health


global health problems

- tx: programs [screen + treat; decrease breeding env't + use nets]
- problems: becoming resistant to meds; co-infection of TB + HIV complicates tx of both infections
- problems: tx. expensive + not enough resources for assistance to pay for it; efforts are concentrated on 1o prevention
vaccine preventable diseases
maternal mortality
- factors: poverty, poor nutrition, trained assistants not available for childbirth
heb. B
chronic conditions
climate-change-related refugees and illnesses


'indicators' in comparing countries health

these are concrete numbers, not affected by culture, :. permit comparisons
e.g. infant mortality, maternal mortality, life expectancy


causes of chronic illnesses

health risk behaviors
- risk behaviors are unhealthy behaviors that can be changed
- e.g. lack of exercise or physical activity, poor nutrition, tobacco use, drinking too much alcohol
factors contributing to the burden of chronic disease
- persistent high prevalence of risk factors [e.g. lifestyle, other behaviors]
- social + env't factors
- increasing life expectancy --> greater #s of older people w/ chronic conditions and associated disabilities


burden of chronic illnesses

costly, most of Medicare pending was for people w/ 2+ chronic conditions
chronic conditions are a major cause of disability + lost productivity
chronic conditions are unequal distributed
- burden is associated w/ education/income, race/ethnicity, geography


treatment of chronic illnesses

priorities for chronic disease
- PREVENTING the development of chronic diseases
- DETECTING chronic diseases early + slowing their progression
- MITIGATING complications of chronic disease to optimize quality of life + to reduce demand on the health care system
health strategies for addressing multiple risks + conditions
- changing norms in tobacco use
- reducing obesity + improving multiple health outcomes
- health system interventions


agencies dealing w/ chronic ilnesses

there are gaps in policies + env't to support healthy lifestyles
public health often focuses on acute problems [e.g. controlling infectious disease outbreaks], while health care providers focus on care delivery
- neither system prioritizes sustained, long-term investments in health promotion + disease prevention


domains of teaching

cognitive [knowledge; problem-solving]
- e.g. lectures, programmed instruction
affective [attitudes; values]
- e.g. discussion, role-playing, videos
psychomotor [performance of skills]
- e.g. demonstration, drill, practice sessions


teaching objectives

describe what will be taught/delivered
desired outcomes should be decided early
must be realistic + achievable
short-term or long-term d/o length of program + how long you can follow participants
should be measurable


signs of low health literacy

incomplete forms written materials are handed to another person
"I'll read it at home"
"I can't read this now, I forgot my glasses"
frequently missing appt.'s
errors in self-care, labeled as 'non-compliant'


key risk factors for limited literacy

low income
did not finish high school
minority ethnic group [e.g. Hispanic, African American]
recent imiigrant to US who does not speak English
born in US but Enllgish is 2nd language


testing readability of documents

SMOG readability formula
flesch-kincaid grade level index


natural history of disease

understanding the characteristic natural hx of a disease enab;es healthcare providers to anticipate prognosis + to ID opportunities for prevention, management,, + control
e.g. pre-pathogenesis -> susceptibility -> 1o prevention [diet, exercise, immunizations]


five stages of change

- no intention on changing behavior
- aware problem exists but w/ no commitment to act
- intent on taking action to address the problem
- active modification of behavior
- sustained change
- new behavior replaces old
- fall back to old pattern of behavior