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Flashcards in final Deck (33):
1

What organ receives nutrients after first entering the body?

Liver

2

where is glycogen stored at?

liver and muscles

3

What does the liver do with proteins?

-manufactures nonessential AA
-converts AA to other AA
-makes plasma proteins like clotting factors

4

Where does glycolysis happen?

cytosol

5

Glycolysis

-metabolic breakdown of glucose to pyruvate
-requires ATP and yields ATP
-requires coenzymes from B vitamins

6

Where does anaerobic metabolism occur at?

muscle, near wound sites

7

is anaerobic or aerobic more efficient?

aerobic

8

What does anaerobic metabolism form that causes a burning pain and muscle fatigue?

lactic acid

9

where does aerobic metabolism occur at?

mitochondria

10

Does aerobic require energy?

yes- acetyl CoA used to make fat
no- acetyl CoA enters TCA cycle to produce large amounts of ATP

11

What can glycerol form?

glucose
pyruvate then acetyl CoA

12

Gluconeogenesis

AA enter TCA cycle or form pyruvate

13

Ketogenic

AA that are converted to acetyl CoA

14

Where does the TCA cycle occur?

mitochondria

15

What blood concentrations increase during the fed state?

glucose, fats, AA, insulin

16

Insulin

anabolic hormone
glucose transport

17

excess dietary triglycerides

stored as triglycerides in adipose tissue

18

excess protein

deaminated and carbons used to make fat

19

excess CHO

stored as glycogen, used for energy and some triglyceride storage

20

control systems regulating blood glucose

insulin, glucagon, autonomic nervous and hormonal counter-regulatory system

21

over how many days is considered long term fasting

1

22

glycogen storage are empty after how many days?

1

23

glucose is mainly made where?

liver

24

How does the body adapt to lower calories?

decreases energy expenditure

25

Basal metabolic rate

BMR; energy needed to maintain life when a body is at complete digestive and physical rest

26

What is a decrease in BMR mainly due to?

decrease in lean body mass

27

Resting Energy Expenditure

REE; energy needed with food but no physical activity; will be higher than BMR

28

starvation

-decreased energy expenditure
-smaller thermic effect
-smaller body requires less energy to move
-lean tissue loss
-new state of equilibrium established

29

fortification

addition of nutrient, may or may not be present in original food

30

enrichment

addition of nutrients to a food to RESTORE what was lost during processing

31

source for B vitamins

fortified grains, meats, and milk

32

where are B vitamins important?

skin, GI tract, central nerves

33

alcohol results in...

B vitamin deficiencies