Flashcards in final Deck (33):
What organ receives nutrients after first entering the body?
where is glycogen stored at?
liver and muscles
What does the liver do with proteins?
-manufactures nonessential AA
-converts AA to other AA
-makes plasma proteins like clotting factors
Where does glycolysis happen?
-metabolic breakdown of glucose to pyruvate
-requires ATP and yields ATP
-requires coenzymes from B vitamins
Where does anaerobic metabolism occur at?
muscle, near wound sites
is anaerobic or aerobic more efficient?
What does anaerobic metabolism form that causes a burning pain and muscle fatigue?
where does aerobic metabolism occur at?
Does aerobic require energy?
yes- acetyl CoA used to make fat
no- acetyl CoA enters TCA cycle to produce large amounts of ATP
What can glycerol form?
pyruvate then acetyl CoA
AA enter TCA cycle or form pyruvate
AA that are converted to acetyl CoA
Where does the TCA cycle occur?
What blood concentrations increase during the fed state?
glucose, fats, AA, insulin
excess dietary triglycerides
stored as triglycerides in adipose tissue
deaminated and carbons used to make fat
stored as glycogen, used for energy and some triglyceride storage
control systems regulating blood glucose
insulin, glucagon, autonomic nervous and hormonal counter-regulatory system
over how many days is considered long term fasting
glycogen storage are empty after how many days?
glucose is mainly made where?
How does the body adapt to lower calories?
decreases energy expenditure
Basal metabolic rate
BMR; energy needed to maintain life when a body is at complete digestive and physical rest
What is a decrease in BMR mainly due to?
decrease in lean body mass
Resting Energy Expenditure
REE; energy needed with food but no physical activity; will be higher than BMR
-decreased energy expenditure
-smaller thermic effect
-smaller body requires less energy to move
-lean tissue loss
-new state of equilibrium established
addition of nutrient, may or may not be present in original food
addition of nutrients to a food to RESTORE what was lost during processing
source for B vitamins
fortified grains, meats, and milk
where are B vitamins important?
skin, GI tract, central nerves