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Flashcards in Test 3 Deck (78):
1

Fruits and vegtables provide...

K

2

Whole grains provide...

Mg and fiber

3

Low fat fat free dairy provide...

Ca

4

Lean meats/ poultry/ fish provide...

Protein and Omega 3

5

Nuts/ seeds/ legumes...

Mg

6

Ca is protective from...

CVD

7

K efffects...

Blood pressure

8

If someone has high blood pressure they should...

Avoid salt

9

The DASH diet over sampled what groups

Blacks and women

10

Is the DASH diet clinically significant in lowering blood pressures?

yes

11

DASH diet changes what ratio?

Sodium/ potassium
reduces blood pressure due to generous amounts of K and other minerals

12

DASH diet is high in which food groups?

Grains, fruit/veg, dairy

13

Which diet has the best effects on cardiovascular risk factors?

Mediterranean

14

Therapeutic effects of physical activity

-lowers triglycerides, raises HDLs, lowers BP, promotes weight loss, improves insulin sensitivity, stregthens heart

15

Therapeutic effects of smoking cessation

Why to stop
-promotes vasoconstrition and blood coagualtion
-raises heart rate and BP
-descreases O2 carrying capacity
-damages blood vessels

16

Therapeutic effects of weight reduction

may improve CHD risk factors
initial goal should be no more than 10% of orginal body weight

17

High insulin levels are associated with

breast, colon, and prostate cancers

18

relative risk score related to no impact

1

19

What hormones or binding globulins are elevated with obesity?

Insulin, IGF1, and oestradiol (total & free)

20

Fat cells are the main source of...

estrogen

21

How does obesity increase risk for cancer?

excess weight --> decreased adiponectin; increasedresistin, FFA, TNFa --> insulin resistance (increase in insulin) --> target cells decreasing apoptosis; increase cell proliferation --> tumor development

22

Increased weight gain of 18-50 lbs after menopause causes...

increased risk of breast cancer

23

increased BMI in men

increased risk for colon cancer

24

Obesity is associated with which cancers?

breast, colon, endometrial, esophageal, renal, thryoid, gallbladder, and prostate

25

Who is at highier risk for gallstone?

Fat
Fertile
Female

26

How many kcal per gram in protein?

4

27

Protein contains...

nitrogen

28

How many common AA

20

29

Difference between essential and nonessential

nonessential- humans produce
essentail- must get from diet

30

Which AA are conditionally essential?

Glutamine and arginine

31

Glutamine

prevents bacterial translocation

32

Arginine

Enhances Tcell function

33

RDA protein amount

.8g/kg

34

Pregnancy protein amount

.8g/kg (pre-preg weight) + 25 gm

35

Lactation protein amount

.8g/kg (pre-preg weight) + 25 gm

36

Nephrotic syndrome protein amount

.8g/kg (dry weight)

37

CRF (cronic renal failure) protein amount

.6g/kg

38

CAPD (peritoneal dialysis) protein amount

1.5g/kg

39

Hemodialysis protein amount

1.2g/kg

40

CAVDH protein amount

1.5-2g/kg (feed for underlying injury)

41

Trauma/ stress protein amount

1.5-2g/kg

42

Who benefits from DASH diet?

HTN, black people, women

43

Can you limit intake of some AA by over supplementing?

yes

44

Food allergy most derive from foods with...

protien fragments

45

What is the most common food allergy?

peanuts

46

Celiac disease

immune response to gluten
most common genetically induced food intolerance

47

How do you confirm celiacs?

biopsy of proximal small intestine

48

Dirt theory

kids need to be exposed to dirt, dust, dogs in order to minimize allergies

49

How much gluten exposure is safe for someone with celiacs?

less than 1/2 tsp of bread

50

Breast milk v. cows milk

lower protein levels which causes less stress to the infants kidneys

51

Breast milk

-majority protein is alpha-lactalbumin
-IgA (IgM in colostrum)
-Bactericidial compounds (lactoferrin and lysoenzymes)
-less infections

52

low albumin levels

shifts fluid levels from blood to interstial space

53

Nitrogen status positive in...

Kids, injuried, pregnant

54

Nirtogen stauts negative in...

Starving, stressed

55

Excess protein gets...

converted to fat

56

High quality proteins (like eggs) provide...

all essential AA

57

Complementary proteins

two or more dietary proteins whose AA compliment each other with missing AA (ex. legumes and grains)

58

Protein deficiency malnutrition

PEM two forms:
Marasmus (chronic; seen in obese older and under 1.5 years)
Kwashiorkor (acute; 18m-2yr; 2nd baby)
death via infection

59

Refeeding syndrome

K & P abnormalities
Try to feed alot after body used to not having much

60

acute renal failure usually occurs with...

high blood loss

61

Prerenal factors of acute renal failure

low blood volume
renal artery disorder
heart disorders

62

Intrinsic factors of acute renal failure

vascular disorders
obstructions within kidney
renal injury

63

postrenal factors of acute renal failure

obstruction of ureter or bladder
prostate disorders
renal vein thrombosis
bladder disorders
pregnancy

64

How long does an av fistula take to mature?

2-4 months
only 50% mature

65

Why make fistulas?

engorges area (visulize easier)
increases pressure

66

How long does it take for an av graft to mature?

about 2 weeks

67

Access locations for Continous Renal Replacement Therapy (CRRT)

Internal Jugular vein
Femoral vein
subclavin vein

68

Why is anemia associated with hemodialysis?

Blood going through non-self --> high creactive protein (not makeing epo) --> leads to anemia

69

What should be restricted with chronic renal failure?

K Mg Phos Na

70

Anabolism

small molecules to larger molecules

71

Catabolism

large molecules to small molecules

72

Metabolism

series of reactions that release energy
water and CO2 released

73

Function of kidney

Regulation of serum electrolytes and Production of erythropoietin

74

urea

produced from ammonia in the liver

75

what lab work indicates acute renal failure?

Elevated BUN, Creatinine, potassium, phosphorus and low urine output

76

Underlaying cause of acute renal failure

Blood loss and inadequte profusion

77

Continous ambulatory peritioneal Dialysis

dialysis through peritoneal membrane

78

Hemodialysis

blood goes through a machine filter from graft or fistula