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Flashcards in FINAL EXAM Deck (47)
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ANTON WEBERN

Austrian

APOHORISM/APHORISTIC STYLE

Very short works

Utilized bowed string instrument techniques

Taught by Schoenberg

1

PIZZICATO

Plucking the strings of a bowed instrument

Used by Webern

2

HARMONICS (string harmonics)

Very high and delicate pitches that are created by lightly placing one's fingers at specific points on a string of an instrument

This can cause the string to sound 2 octaves higher than normal

Utilized by Webern

3

COL LEGNO

Turning the bow over and playing the strings with the wood of the boy instead of the horsehair, as would be normal.

This causes a vary strange and unstable sound quality

Utilized by Webern

4

DISJUNCT melodic lines

Webern's 12-tone (serial) works

Wide difficult leaps

5

PIERRE BOULEZ

French

Darmstadt School

Argued for rational music

Advocated INTEGRAL SERIALISM

Created ABSTRACT works

Created POINTILLISTIC works

6

INTEGRAL SERIALISM

"Control music"

Expands serial procedures beyond pitch to control/order all musical parameters

Not only pitch but rhythm, dynamics, instrumentation, form, etc

7

ABSTRACT

Non-representational

8

POINTILLISTIC

A type of texture

Seemingly random (but actually very carefully if abstractly organized) points of sound, each of which are isolated in a separate range (high or low) and timbre

Wokrs like these have nothing that can be called a melody

9

JOHN CAGE

American avant-garde composer

Student of Schoenberg

Invented PREPARED PIANO

Advocate of ALEATORY/ALEATORIC MUSIC (chance music)

Created the multi-media HAPPENING

10

PREPARED PIANO

John Cage

A type of extended technique for piano, accomplished by inserting objects between the piano's strings according to the composer's specific instructions (screws, etc)

11

ALEATORY/ALEATORIC MUSIC (INDETERMINACY/CHANCE MUSIC)

John Cage advocated this

Chance elements come into play either during composition or during performance or BOTH

Occasionally accomplished using GRAPHIC NOTATION

12

GRAPHIC NOTATION

Aleatoric music

Makes great demands on performers' abilities to improvise as they interpret the images in the score

13

The Multi-Media HAPPENING

John Cage

Multiple forms of art are simultaneously performed or displayed without strict coordination

14

ELECTROACOUSTIC MUSIC

Originated in Western art music after WW2

15

MUSIQUE CONCRETE

Earliest electroacoustic music developments took place in 1948 at French National Radio by Pierre Schaeffer

Based off of 'real world' sounds (train, water, piano, etc)

Any natural sound has a potential 'sound object'

16

FOUR CLASSIC MANIPULATIONS OF TAPED SOUND

1) Editing out portions of the sound = "filtering out"

2) Varying the playback speed = "manipulation"

3) Playing the sound backward = "sound reversal"

4) Combining different sounds = "overdubbing"

17

"PURE" ELECTRONIC MUSIC

Music created in a studio designed to create electronic music (Cologne, Germany)

Electronic sound-producing devices

18

ELECTRONIC SOUND-PRODUCING DEVICES

Oscillators

NOISE (SINE-WAVE) GENERATORS

19

ADDITIVE SYNtheSIS

Sounds are created by combining SINE WAVES in order to create artificial overtone structures and thus new timbres

20

SINE-WAVE

"Pure" pitches with no overtones

21

SUBTRACTIVE SYNTHESIS

Components of a complex sound (usually WHITE NOISE) are filtered out to produce new timbres

22

WHITE NOISE

Electronically generated

Contains the entire audible spectrum of frequencies

23

MIXED MUSIC

Live performers play along with a pre-recorded tape

Electronic music

24

GYORGY LIGETI

Hungarian

Influenced by the serial methods of the Darmstadt School

Lux Aeterna

SOUND-MASS COMPOSITIONS

MICROPOLYPHONY

25

SOUND-MASS COMPOSITION

Eschew conventional melody, harmony, and rhythm in favor of 'sound masses'

Merges orchestral clusters, creating a succession of various timbres

26

MICROPOLYPHONY

A textural effect in which individual parts are lost within a complexity of sonic activity

Often accomplished by having individual instruments within a large ensemble play either imitative or non-imitative polyphony that is so closely spaced that the individual parts cannot be discerned

27

What invention allowed for music in movies?

Vitaphone system by Warner Brothers

28

Max Steiner

King Kong

Gone with the WInd

Casablanca

29

FILM SCORE

Genre