Flashcards in FINAL EXAM Deck (47)
Very short works
Utilized bowed string instrument techniques
Taught by Schoenberg
Plucking the strings of a bowed instrument
Used by Webern
HARMONICS (string harmonics)
Very high and delicate pitches that are created by lightly placing one's fingers at specific points on a string of an instrument
This can cause the string to sound 2 octaves higher than normal
Utilized by Webern
Turning the bow over and playing the strings with the wood of the boy instead of the horsehair, as would be normal.
This causes a vary strange and unstable sound quality
Utilized by Webern
DISJUNCT melodic lines
Webern's 12-tone (serial) works
Wide difficult leaps
Argued for rational music
Advocated INTEGRAL SERIALISM
Created ABSTRACT works
Created POINTILLISTIC works
Expands serial procedures beyond pitch to control/order all musical parameters
Not only pitch but rhythm, dynamics, instrumentation, form, etc
A type of texture
Seemingly random (but actually very carefully if abstractly organized) points of sound, each of which are isolated in a separate range (high or low) and timbre
Wokrs like these have nothing that can be called a melody
American avant-garde composer
Student of Schoenberg
Invented PREPARED PIANO
Advocate of ALEATORY/ALEATORIC MUSIC (chance music)
Created the multi-media HAPPENING
A type of extended technique for piano, accomplished by inserting objects between the piano's strings according to the composer's specific instructions (screws, etc)
ALEATORY/ALEATORIC MUSIC (INDETERMINACY/CHANCE MUSIC)
John Cage advocated this
Chance elements come into play either during composition or during performance or BOTH
Occasionally accomplished using GRAPHIC NOTATION
Makes great demands on performers' abilities to improvise as they interpret the images in the score
The Multi-Media HAPPENING
Multiple forms of art are simultaneously performed or displayed without strict coordination
Originated in Western art music after WW2
Earliest electroacoustic music developments took place in 1948 at French National Radio by Pierre Schaeffer
Based off of 'real world' sounds (train, water, piano, etc)
Any natural sound has a potential 'sound object'
FOUR CLASSIC MANIPULATIONS OF TAPED SOUND
1) Editing out portions of the sound = "filtering out"
2) Varying the playback speed = "manipulation"
3) Playing the sound backward = "sound reversal"
4) Combining different sounds = "overdubbing"
"PURE" ELECTRONIC MUSIC
Music created in a studio designed to create electronic music (Cologne, Germany)
Electronic sound-producing devices
ELECTRONIC SOUND-PRODUCING DEVICES
NOISE (SINE-WAVE) GENERATORS
Sounds are created by combining SINE WAVES in order to create artificial overtone structures and thus new timbres
"Pure" pitches with no overtones
Components of a complex sound (usually WHITE NOISE) are filtered out to produce new timbres
Contains the entire audible spectrum of frequencies
Live performers play along with a pre-recorded tape
Influenced by the serial methods of the Darmstadt School
Eschew conventional melody, harmony, and rhythm in favor of 'sound masses'
Merges orchestral clusters, creating a succession of various timbres
A textural effect in which individual parts are lost within a complexity of sonic activity
Often accomplished by having individual instruments within a large ensemble play either imitative or non-imitative polyphony that is so closely spaced that the individual parts cannot be discerned
What invention allowed for music in movies?
Vitaphone system by Warner Brothers
Gone with the WInd