Midterm 1 Flashcards Preview

Art of Listening > Midterm 1 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Midterm 1 Deck (70)
Loading flashcards...
0

Johann Sebastian Bach

1685-1750

Created HIGH BAROQUE music

1

When did Bach die?

1750 IMPORTANT

2

What is the most studied and influential music in the classical repertory?

Bach's HIGH BAROQUE

3

MONODY

A song characterized by a SOLO VOCAL MELODY WITH INSTRUMENTAL ACCOMPANIMENT

Homophonic texture

4

HOMOPHONIC TEXTURE

Melody + accompaniment

Can be created by instruments alone, vocals alone, or a combo of the two

5

What is musical texture determined by?

The relationship between the parts being played

NOT determined by the presence of instruments

6

What is the Baroque polyphony like?

It is a dynamic mixture of polyphony and homophony

Melodic upper parts performed 'over' a basso continuo

7

BASSO CONTINUO

One, two, or more instruments that provide an ACCOMPANIMENT for one or more vocal or instrumental soloists

The soloists read from a musical part called the FIGURED BASS

At least one of the instruments plays the bass line

Low bass string instrument/low wind and a chordal instrument

Baroque/classical periods = keyboard instrument = harpsichord or organ

8

FIGURED BASS

Notated as a single musical line (bass line) over which numbers and other symbols indicate which other notes should be played in each chord

9

Continuo Group

The instrumentation of the basso continuo

10

What does the Baroque period contain that other periods before it do not?

BAROQUE NOTATION CONTAINS MORE PERFORMANCE DETAILS

Dynamics (loudness)

Improvisation

Ornamentation

11

DYNAMICS

Refers to the relative loudness or softness of the music

FORTE = f = play loudly

MEZZO FORTE = mf = somewhat loudly (less loud than f)

MEZZO PIANO = mp = somewhat softly (less loud than mf)

PIANO = p = play softly

CRESCENDO = < = to become gradually louder

DECRESCENDO = > = to become gradually softer

12

TEMPO

Refers to the relative speed of the beat in music

PRESTO = very fast

ALLEGO = fast

ALLEGRETTO = moderately fast

MODERATO = at a moderate rate

ADAGIO or ANDANTE = slow

13

ORNAMENTATION

The practice of IMPROVISING short decorative flourishes during performance

These notes are generally called ORNAMENTS/EMBELLISHMENTS

During HIGH BAROQUE, instructions came out on how to play ornaments

14

THE BAROQUE ORCHESTRA

New things:

Centered around BOWED STRINGS
Sometimes used harpsichord/organ

TIMBRE (sound color)

LOUDNESS

BASSO CONTINUO instruments specified in published scores

15

What were the CORE of the Baroque orchestra?

BOWED STRINGS

16

SCORE

A piece of music that shows all of the parts in a given piece, all together on each page

Also called a full score

Not practical for larger ensembles

17

PART

A piece of music that shows only the music that one instrument or voice performs during the work

18

MULTI-MOVEMENT WORK

A musical work under one title that is actually several separate musical pieces that are always played together in the same order

Each part is called a MOVEMENT

19

MOVEMENT

An individual piece that is part of a multi-movement work

20

What are the LARGE-SCALE INSTRUMENTAL GENRES?

SOLO CONCERTO

CONCERTO GROSSO

BAROQUE DANCE SUITE/ORCHESTRAL DANCE SUITE

21

SOLO CONCERTO

Mutli-movement genre for a single instrumental soloist and orchestra

22

CONCERTO GROSSO

Multi-movement genre for TWO OR MORE instrumental soloists and orchestra

Ex. two violinists and basso continuo (the solo group) accompanied by a larger group (orchestra)

During Baroque Era, concerto gross were NEVER titled Concerto Grosso, but simply titled 'concerto'

23

What were concerto grosso NEVER titled? What are the implications of this?

Concerto Grosso

They are therefore difficult to differentiate from a solo concerto by title alone

24

BAROQUE DANCE SUITE/ORCHESTRAL DANCE SUITE

A multi-movement genre for orchestra without any particular featured solist

SUITE = multi-movement collection of dances

25

SUITE

Multi-movement collection of dances

26

SMALL-SCALE INSTRUMENTAL GENRES (CHAMBER MUSIC)

SOLO SONATA

TRIO SONATA

27

CHAMBER MUSIC

Small ensemble music appropriate for smaller venues and other more intimate settings

NOT A GENRE

General description that covers several genres

28

SOLO SONATA (two types, both with the same title)

1) Multi-movement genre for a solo instrumentalist and basso continuo

or

2) Multi-movement genre for a solo keyboard (harpsichord most commonly)

29

TRIO SONATA

Multi-movement genre for TWO instrumental soloists and basso continuo

Tricky to tell because ensemble can vary widely, from 3 players (2 soloists + 1 continuo player) to 5 players (2 soloists + 3 continuo players) or even more