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Sound

Created by vibration traveling through a medium (air) to the ear of the listener

1

Pitch

A sound-producing vibration that oscillates (beats) at a definite and prescribed rate of speed

Ex. The pitch A = 440 MHz (bps)

2

Interval

The distance in frequency between 2 pitches, either upward (higher) or downward (lower)

Generally described as 'large' or 'small'

3

Octave

Natural phenomenon dictated by the physics of sound; fundamental property of sound recognized by all musical cultures

The interval between 2 pitches (2:1 frequency ratio)

4

What is the frequency ratio of an octave? What does this mean?

2:1

The higher of the two pitches vibrates at twice the speed of the lower

5

Equal Temperament

The man-made division of the octave into 12 equal intervals

The man-made division of the octave in 12 'half steps'

6

How many pitches are there? What are they?

7
A, B, C, D, E, F, G

7

Mode (scale)

A collection of specific pitches that emphasize one particular pitch (called the final)

A series of specific intervals, usually written down/practiced as spanning 1 or more octaves

8

How many octaves does a mode span?

1 or more

9

Cadence

A pause or 'resting place' in mustic

Often on the final

A place where harmonic tension in the music relaxes to some degree

10

Where does harmonic tension in music relax to some degree?

During cadence

11

When does cadence usually take place?

Ofton on the final

12

Ensemble (medium)

The instruments, voices, and anything else that makes sound and takes part in music making

Instrumentation

Ensembles are different across cultures

13

Genre

A specific category of music composition as defined by its musical characteristics or traits

Ex. Gregorian chant, string quartet, symphony

14

Composition (Piece or Work)

Any work of art may be referred to as a 'composition' without making reference to the specific genre

15

Composer

The person who actually creates the orignial musical conception

Usually in written form

Western classical music, composer is the one who makes the music, not the one who plays it

16

Does the composer in Western classical music play or produce the music?

Produce only

17

What does understanding music require?

Cultural fluency

18

Are the nuances of musical experience transferable from one culture to another? Why/Why not?

No, because it's all based on cultural context (it's original meaning)

19

Early Christianity

Ancestor = JUDAISM

Inherited a very long and important WRITTEN tradition

20

What caused Europe's worship and musical practices to diversify?

It gradually became Christianized after the 4th century

21

What was one of the greatest accomplishments of the early Medieval Period?

The unification of the Chirstain Church throughout western Europe as the ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH

22

Who was the most famous pope?

St. Gregory I

23

What did St. Gregory I do?

Created PLAINCHANTS required for MASS and DIVINE OFFICE

Many plainchants are called GREGORIAN CHANTS (named after him)

24

Are all plainchants Gregorian?

No, since some have been composed by other people

25

Should you call all chants Gregorian? If not, what should you refer to them as?

No

Plainchant or chant

26

When was the Medieval Period?

450-1450 AD

27

What are two of the centrals features of Western music that originated during the Medieval Period?

Tune (melody)

Polyphony

28

Because the Medieval Period lasted for so long, this 'style period' is split into how many shorter priods?

4

29

What are the 4 style periods of the Medieval Period?

5TH-8TH CENTURIES = many liturgical texts, no notated music has survived

9TH CENTURY = 1st extant manuscripts of natated music

12TH CENTURY = Vocal/Instrumental music manuscripts

14TH CENTURY = Ars Nova music of GUillaume da Machaut