Flashcards in final exam Deck (75)
the study of the distribution and determinants of health related states or events in specified populations- or in other words, how often the disease occurs in different population groups and why
the constant presence of a disease or infectious agent within a given prevalence of a given disease within an area
an unusually high occurrence of disease or the occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illness clearly in excess of normal expectancy
the occurrence and distribution of a disease or infection occurring world wide or over a wide area
the rate of development of a disease in a group over time, which is included in the denominator or the rate at which new disease cases occur in a population during a specified period
describes a group at a certain time
rates of disease
rates of death
another way incidence can be defined as...
the number of persons developing a disease divided by the total time experienced for the subjects followed
must be divided by the total number of the group
is a graduation, numeric scale with upper and lower limits - used for the measurement of disease severity, rather than just disease incidence or prevalence
this type of study usually looks at the prevalence of disease by person (age, gender, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, occupation), place and time to describe groups at higher risk of developing disease
the most common descriptive study
an investigator studies the impact of a factor that he or she controls.
example: clinical trial testing fluoride varnish for the prevention of dental caries in which one half of the study participants receive the active agent and the other half receive a placebo
refer to the timing of the information and events of a study
retrospective and prospective
any designated group of individuals who are followed or traced over time.. new cases of disease are measured in a group of people who are or have been exposed to a factor believed to influence the occurrence of the disease
also referred to as longitudinal studies
when a disease is constantly and consistently present in a population it is referred to as:
when the incidence of a disease is unusually high for a population it is referred to as:
although a triangle has three sides, the epidemiologic triangle actually consists of four parts, which of the following is NOT part of the triangle?
B. COFOUNDING VARIABLE
rates of death:
which of the following terms describes the number of new disease cases that have occurred during a specific period?
incidence rates are generally used to describe the amount of dental caries in the United States (true or false)
which study design is usually the first step in looking at disease?
which study design follows a group of individuals forward in time?
the goal of any diagnostic or screening test is to have?
sensitivity and specificity 100%
what does the abbreviation DMFS mean?
decayed, missing, and filled permanent tooth surfaces
a 16 year old has occlusal decay on #2 and #15, occlusal fillings on all four first molars, an MOD filling on #18 and an MO filling on #31. Teeth #5 and #12 are missing. what are the DMFT and DMFS scores for this adolescent?
DMFT 8; DMFS 11
DMFS measures caries experience in permanent teeth and dmfs measures caries experience in the primary dentition.