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1

the study of the distribution and determinants of health related states or events in specified populations- or in other words, how often the disease occurs in different population groups and why

epidemiology

2

the constant presence of a disease or infectious agent within a given prevalence of a given disease within an area

endemic

3

an unusually high occurrence of disease or the occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illness clearly in excess of normal expectancy

epidemic

4

the occurrence and distribution of a disease or infection occurring world wide or over a wide area

pandemic

example: AIDS

5

the rate of development of a disease in a group over time, which is included in the denominator or the rate at which new disease cases occur in a population during a specified period

incidence

example: video

6

describes a group at a certain time

prevalence
example: snapshot

7

rates of disease

morbidity

8

rates of death

mortality

9

another way incidence can be defined as...

the number of persons developing a disease divided by the total time experienced for the subjects followed

10

must be divided by the total number of the group

proportion rates

11

is a graduation, numeric scale with upper and lower limits - used for the measurement of disease severity, rather than just disease incidence or prevalence

index

12

this type of study usually looks at the prevalence of disease by person (age, gender, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, occupation), place and time to describe groups at higher risk of developing disease

descriptive study

13

the most common descriptive study

cross sectional

14

an investigator studies the impact of a factor that he or she controls.

experimental studies

example: clinical trial testing fluoride varnish for the prevention of dental caries in which one half of the study participants receive the active agent and the other half receive a placebo

15

refer to the timing of the information and events of a study

retrospective and prospective

16

any designated group of individuals who are followed or traced over time.. new cases of disease are measured in a group of people who are or have been exposed to a factor believed to influence the occurrence of the disease

cohort study

17

also referred to as longitudinal studies

prospective

18

when a disease is constantly and consistently present in a population it is referred to as:

endemic

19

when the incidence of a disease is unusually high for a population it is referred to as:

epidemic

20

although a triangle has three sides, the epidemiologic triangle actually consists of four parts, which of the following is NOT part of the triangle?

a. time
B. COFOUNDING VARIABLE
c. environment
d. agent
e. host

21

rates of death:

mortality rates

22

which of the following terms describes the number of new disease cases that have occurred during a specific period?

incidence

23

incidence rates are generally used to describe the amount of dental caries in the United States (true or false)

false

24

which study design is usually the first step in looking at disease?

descriptive

25

which study design follows a group of individuals forward in time?

prospective cohort

26

the goal of any diagnostic or screening test is to have?

sensitivity and specificity 100%

27

what does the abbreviation DMFS mean?

decayed, missing, and filled permanent tooth surfaces

28

a 16 year old has occlusal decay on #2 and #15, occlusal fillings on all four first molars, an MOD filling on #18 and an MO filling on #31. Teeth #5 and #12 are missing. what are the DMFT and DMFS scores for this adolescent?

DMFT 8; DMFS 11

29

DMFS measures caries experience in permanent teeth and dmfs measures caries experience in the primary dentition.

true

30

if a person has a RCI of 25%, it means that 25% of their teeth have decay or fillings on the roots

false