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1

24. The Great War - causes

the 1st great crisis in modern scientific-industrial society was WWI
--Imperialist competition in the Balkans triggered the war
--the Austrio-Hungarian Empire was huge and lined Germany, Russia, Swiss, and Italy (Ottoman Empire was where Turkey is)

RESULT: Capitalism , democracy, socialism-communism, and supremacist nationalism emerged - open trade ended
1. Capitalist democracy
--U.S. Britain, France, Latin Am.) - freedom, capitalism, and international institutions for maintaining peace

2. Communism-socialism (Soviet Union) - equality > freedom and command economy controlled from the top

3. supremacist nationalism (Germany, Italy, Japan) - both democracy and communism - racial supremacy and dictatorial/authoritarian rule - state controlled economy and territorial expansion through military conquest

WWII and rise of new nations - planned by supremacist nationalists - WWI ended global free trade of 19th century

2

Cold War (1st - will be later)

1st "hot" phase - U.S. and Soviet surround with allies from Europe and Asia - fought each other through "proxies -- smarter allied states - climaxed with cuban missile crisis

2nd "cooling phase" - reduced tensions and decreased nuclear arsenals...proxy fighting continues

3rd industrial revolution
--computer revolution put U.S. on course to defeat USSR - US became unrivaled superpower - adv. computer tech., powerful financial services and unmatched military strength

3

Russia, Italy and Germany gov.

Russia - communism, Italy - racism, Germany - Nazism
--spreading principles of modernity
--supremacist nationalism was destroyed by the alliance of communism and capitalist democracy

4

The Great War

July 27, 1914 - Diff. representations on way to modernity
--scientific-industrial society (BRIT., US. FR. Germ) and industrialization (Japan, Russia, Ottoman, Austria-Hungary)

Allies = France, Russia, Britain
Central Powers = Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire

--Europe dominated by imperial competition and need for balance of power (following Napoleonic wars)
--two trends: constitutionalism and ethnic nationalism vs. industrialization
--Ottoman decrease and Russian empire expanding
--fight over Bosnia-Herzegovina - Austria Hungary claimed - later a Bosnian Serb nationalist group assassinated the Austrian heir to the throne, Franz Ferdinand and his wife --- assassination Began to drive Europe into WW1

5

Total War

warfare in which all resources of the nation (included population) are marshaled for the war effort - all segments of society seen as targets
--rely on precise timing and speedy mobilization of forces

by 1918 - N France and Belgium resembled moonscapes from 4 years of destruction and carnage - unluckiest city was Ypres, Belgium - suffered 3 battles and was all but obliterated by wars end

6

Schlieffen Plan

a massive assault on N Franz through Belgium by Germany
--trap and isolated French armies (needed to defeat France before Russia's army was mobilized)
--failed plan - after French and British victory in 1st battle of the Marne - Russia rapidly mobilized - 2 sides forced into TRENCH WARFARE
--failed bc they were trying to quickly get to France before Russia mobilized...which they did more quickly than expected and attacked Germany on the other side - they add to abandon the western front and defend the east from Russia
--this war also introduced the machine gun

7

Armenian Genocide

germans were able to halt Russian advances and inflict heavy losses
--Ottoman Empire helped and suffered heavy losses - which prompted it to massacre 1 million Armenians

Italy, Greece and Romania joined the Allies - also recruited China 1917 and US - WW1 now involved every major state in the world
--Bulgaria joined the central powers

8

Turning point of the war 1917

war caused Tsar Nicolas II to create new social-democratic gov. - committed to carrying on the war (grew unpopular)

Rise of COMMUNIST BOLSHEVIK PARTY - of Vladamir Lenin
--campaigned against cont. war - 1917 Nov. Lenin took over gov. with soldiers in St. Petersburg - after seizing power...began discussions with Germany and signed treaty to give about 1/3 of Russian population territory and resources to Germany so Russia could withdraw from war
--Germans closer to achieving goals: LEBENSRAUM (living space) in industrialized Europe part of Russia

9

US joining WWI

US originally declared neutral at the start -- but during switched to the allied side - German sinking of the British ship, LUSITANIA (1915), Which killed 100+ Americans brought US to war
--entrance of US provided resources for ALLIES to win war
--ALLIES: Called for freedom of seas, natural powers, self-determination for all people and peace
--US sent troops to France and defeated German adv.

10

Results of the war

1. TREATY OF VERSAILLES (June 1919)
--5 years after assassination of Franz Ferdinand
--Germany lost overseas colonies - allies declared Germany responsibile for war and put military restrictions and reparation pmts. - debt

2. LEAGUE OF NATIONS
--body of 58 global states as part of treaty of Versailles that would ensure world peace

11

Complex underlain causes of the Great War (class notes)

Great War (1914-1918)
1. Ascendency of Germany

2. Entangling Alliances
--triple Entente (later Allied powers) - Britain, France, and Russia
--Central Powers: Germany and Austria-Hungary (eventually Ottoman Empire)

3. Cult of the Offensive

4. Decline of the Ottoman Empire

5. The rise of nationalism in the empires of Central and Eastern Europe

12

Battle of the Somme

Somme offensive - one of the largest battles of WWI - July 1 thought November 1 1916 near Somme river in France
--one of the bloodiest military battles in history
--first day: British suffered 57,000 casualties - both allies and central powers lost more than 1.5 million men in the end
--this battle was first great offensive for the British - Britain changed military tactics - Brit. and Fr. vs. Germany
--meant to be a joint French and British operation
--this changed from 2 years of trench warfare to the allies trying to break through German lines on the western front (Fr. and Brit. changing tactics to attack Germany)

brought in the RIFLE, FLAMETHROWER, MACHINE GUN, HAND GRENADE, TANK, ARTILLERY
--U-boats, airplanes, chemical weapons

also Propoganda!!

13

Lieutenant John McCrae

Canadian surgeon who fought in WWI
--fought in Flanders, Belgium
--wrote, "In Flanders Fields" - famous WWI poem - we often remember this poem on Memorial Day in the US

Wildred Owen is another famous poet - he died a week before WWI ended by a British Assault on Germany

Earl Haig, Edinburgh castle,
Aberdeen memorial,
American doughboys

14

Outcomes of the Great War

nearly 70 million men fought in the war
--8 million dead, 20 million wounded
--civilians suffered from aerial bombardment, food shortages, and disease
--around 800,000 die in the Armenian genocide
--at least 20 million civilians die worldwide from influenza outbreak
--psychological damage and the "lost generation"

15

25. The interwar in Europe

after WWI, France and Britain struggled - huge DEBT
--league of nations had mandate system - colonies were to be prepared for future independence

Britain - shift from state control to market capitalism
--also dependent on world trade (which decreased dramatically after war)
--Britain also owed war debt $4.3 billion to US - Britain's ability to repay depended on Germany repaying...so entire European Econ. system fragile in 1920s

Interwar period: unemployment HIGH and investments low

16

Autarky and mandates

Autarky - condition of economic independence and self-sufficiency as state policy
--Britain created by decreasing tariffs and world trade
--to get out of depression - defect gov. spending - decreased tariffs, devalue currency - return to gold standard
--Brit. also grew from 2 mil. sq. miles to 14 million - empire - imperial expansion to Middle East - rec. Arab provinces of Ottoman Empire (Fr. and Brit)

FRANCE
--huge human and property loss during war
--war had been fought with material borrowed from US and Britain - had to be paid
--$ to repair came from increasing taxes, German reparations and German taxes
--returned to the gold standard
--supremacist nationalism

MANDATES
--Quasi-colonies created by league of nations - mandated key territories of Ottoman Empire to Britain and France - eventually to turn into independent colonies

17

Great Depression

global economic crisis that followed the crash of the NY stock exchange on Oct. 29, 2929 - resulted in massive unemployment and economic misery worldwide
--sever in England

18

Woodrow Wilson's 14 pts.

(it was a reading assignment) - go READ IT

The 14 Points was a stmt. of principles for peace that was to be used for peace negotiations in order to end WWI
--principles were outlined in a January 8, 1918 speech on war aims and peace terms to the United States Congress by Pres.Woodrow Wilson
--failed bc did not call for harsh reparations of punishment against the Central Powers
--the final point of the Fourteen Points called for a "general association of nations" that would prevent future conflict

part of the points was the creation of the league of nations
--designed to prevent future destructive wars - arms control and mutual defense guarantees

19

Mustafa Kemal Ataturk

army officer who founded an independent Republic of Turkey out of the ruins of the Ottoman Empire
--born in the former Ottoman Empire
--he was involved with the Young Turks, a revolutionary group that deposed the sultan in 1909
--led the Turkish war for independence
--signed the Treaty of Lausanne in 1923, which made Turkey a republic
--served as Turkey's first president from 1923 until his death in 1938
--implemented reforms that rapidly secularized and westernized the country

made sure Turkish parliament was open to pluralism - adopted the French model of separation of state and religion
--European family law, Latin alphabet, western calendar, metric weights, modern clothing and women's suffrage
--launched statism during Great Depression - Turkeys version of deficit spending

20

1920s culture

Model T assembly line
--Radio
--Jazz and cabaret
--1924 Winter Olympics in Chamonix
--1930 World Cup, Uruguay
--Flappers in Paris (French flappers were big)

20s and 30s - lots of advertising

21

Jarrow Crusade 1936

an organised protest against the unemployment and poverty suffered in the English Tyneside town of Jarrow during the 1930s
--200 men to march in protest from Jarrow to London
--petition

22

John Maynard Keynes

English economist, journalist, and financier, best known for his economic theories (Keynesian economics) on the causes of prolonged unemployment
--during the 1930s in an attempt to understand the Great Depression..Keynes advocated inc. government expenditures and lower taxes to stimulate demand and pull the global economy out of the depression
--capitalism is good - work for money, businesses hire and pay - they buy what they want to

23

Outcome of great war leading into interwar period

OUTCOMES
--war destroyed the German, Ottoman, Austio-Hungarian, and Russian empires
--many new nation-states emerged in eastern and central Europe
--spread of democracy and woman's suffrage
--Treaty of Versailles, 1919 - war guilty clause/punishment of Germany

Germany experienced HYPERINFLATION - banknotes were used as waste paper...used to light the stove

24

Paris peace conference (Versailles peace conference)

the meeting of the victorious Allied Powers following the end of World War I to set the peace terms for the defeated Central Powers
--British Prime Minister David Lloyd George, President Woodrow Wilson of the United States, French Premier Georges Clemenceau, and Premier Vittorio Orlando of Italy became the leaders of the conference
--called the Big Four

in Treaty of Versailles - forced Germany to accept responsibility for loss and damage to which Allied and associated gov. had been subjected to by war imposed upon them by aggression of Germany and her allies

the WILSONIAN MOMENT - book about Paris Peace conference when allies debated about a bunch of smaller nations who waited to see what their fate would be
--India, Egypt, China and Korea
--this led to third world liberation movements - influence and sparked wave of nationalism that is still resonating globally today

25

league of nations

part of the points was the creation of the league of nations
--designed to prevent future destructive wars - arms control and mutual defense guarantees

Palace of Nations is the home of the United Nations Office at Geneva, Switzerland
--It was built between 1929 and 1938 to serve as the headquarters of the League of Nations

UNDER LEAGUE OF NATIONS
--mandate system
--Germany and Russia excluded from the league
--no US either

26

26. The Soviet Union

Communism arose out of QQI
--Bolsheviks under Lenin triumphed in civil war and established union of Soviet Socialist Republics
--Lenin's successor was Stalin - built Communist party - by WWII, Soviet Union joined ranks of industrialized powers

27

Vladimir lenin

Karl Marx was the father of communism
--lenin adapted Marxism to his circumstances -instill communist ideology in expanding working class
--Lenin - middle class family - his brother was assassinated by Tsar Alexander II - let do his hatred for Russian Autocracy
--fal of tsar gov. in 1917 - Lenin and Bolsheviks opportunity (included Stalin and Trotsky)

28

Bolsheviks

Nov. 1917 - staged coup d' état in Petrograd
--minority group who took over gov. - "red force"
--price for communist victory was economic collapse
--Lenin taught "War communism" - red army to country to get food - Brutal methods

29

Joseph Stalin

Lenin died 1924 - Stalin took his place
--he had fought for 6 years against potential rivals - including Trotsky
--he refried him into exile and had him assassinated in Mexico

thought industrialization through Lenin's NEP (new economic policy) was too slow - to acceleration industrialization he started collectivization of agriculture
--"wealthiest" farmers on grain-producing lands (Called Kulaks) were "liquidated" - selected for execution, removal to labor camps, or resettlement on inferior soils - property confiscated
--btwn 6-14 million farmers forcibly removed (killed or starved to death)

30

NEP

New economic policy
--helped society return to pre-war levels of industrial production
--peasants fought against gov. - 1922 another civil war threats
--he put in temporary NEP - micro of private and state investments in factories and small-scale food marketing by peasants

3 Mausoleum's - monumental buildings after Lenin

31

Stalinism

agricultural production decreases, food rations, wages decrease - confiscate wealth from KULAKS
--used income from oil exports and grain exports to construct factories
--1939 - industrialization at human cost
--RAPID INDUSTRIALIZATION

introduced the 1st 5-year plan
--list of economic goals based on socialism--policy of collectivization!!
--Kulak transit camps

huge famine in Kiev - many die

32

Feb. and Oct. revolutions (soviet union)

Moscow Bolshevik Uprising is the armed uprising of the Bolsheviks in Moscow
--November 1917 during the October Revolution of Russia
--It was in Oct., Moscow where the most prolonged and bitter fighting unfolded
--leftist revolutionaries led by Bolshevik Party leader Vladimir Lenin launched a nearly bloodless coup d'état against the Duma's provisional gov.
--led to introduction of Marxist socialism under Lenin

FEBRUARY REVOLUTION - Russia
--riots and strikes over the scarcity of food erupt in Petrograd (now St. Petersburg). By 1917, most Russians had lost faith in the leadership ability of the czarist regime

Trotsky led the red army - Workers' and Peasants' Red Army
--Trotsky called (Bronstein)

--then huge change in physical culture

33

Great Terror

The Great Purge or the Great Terror was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938
--The leader of Communist Russia, Joseph Stalin, was paranoid of opposition. It was this paranoia that led to the Great Purge where millions of people were executed or sent to labor camps in Siberia
--marks a period of extreme persecution and oppression in the Soviet Union during the late 1930s
--began with the assassination of Sergei Kirov, whose 1935 murder by Leonid Nikolayev is suspected to have been ordered by Stalin

34

Appeal of the Soviet Union

--planned economy
--full employment
--welfare state
--racial equality
--anti-colonialism
--education
--triumph of science and reason
--promise of a better future

35

27. Facism and Nazism
(Benito Mussolini)

Another vision of modernity: supremacist nationalism
--fascism - alternative to democracy and communism after WWI in Italy

Benito Mussolini (1883-1945)
--journalist for socialist newspapers
--majority of socialists opposed war...yet he supported it
--found Italian combat squad - war veterans dressed in black shirts who broke up communist rallies and strikes
--symbol of movement was fasces (old Roman emblem of solidarity in form of bundle of sticks and ax, tied with ribbon) - there is evidence of fasces in US political imagery
--fascist "black shirts" - breakdown law and order - anti communist and anti democracy
--demanded march on Rome by 10,000 BLACK SHIRTS

36

Italian fascism

1923 - Mussolini led gov. in passing law that gave 2/3 of seats in parliament to party with most votes - later Il Duce won 2/3 and began to implement fascist corporate state
--by 1926 - elections abolished, censored press, and secret police monitoring the population - all officials appointed from above
--Catholicism became state religion - bc made deal with Vatican to support fascists

Italy worked in Depression by deficit spending and state investments
--Mussolini formed - industrial reconstruction institute - took over industrial and commercial holdings of banks that had failed earlier - revived Italian industrials

policy of Autarky - conquered Libya (former Ottoman colony), Ethiopia and merged Italian Entrea and Somalia into Italian East Africa
--league of nations protested Ethiopia conquest
--Mussolini felt isolated and tried to gain closer relationship with Nazi Hitler
--together formed the Axis powers, later joined by Japan in 1941

37

Germany struggles after WWI

struggled in transition from empire to republic after WWI - Weimar Republic took over
--France waned Germ. divided into individual states again - Brit. and AM were opposed but forced Germ. to accept responsibility for war and make pmts. for reparation
--huge hyperinflation in Germany - German mark became worthless
--US created Dawes plan to advance credits to Euro. banks to refinance German reparation pmts.
--after stock market crash of 1929 - US banks began to recall loans made to Euro. - Euro. banks began to fail, world trade dec., unemployment increase
--many grew opposed to democracy and voted for extreme gov, (communists and supremacist nationalists)
--the national socialist German workers' party (NSDAP/ Nazi) became largest party in Parliament - led by Hitler

38

Adolf Hitler

Failed uprising 1923 - went to prison
--wrote Mein Kampf - blamed Jews for WWI and communists for the central powers losing the war
--supported superior Aryan race and wanted "living space" principle
--became chancellor - pres. allowed him to declare martial law
--after making deal with Vatican, Hitler had power to rule for 4 years
--response: abolished federalist structure, purged civil service of Jews, closed down all other parties, censorship laws, sent communists to camps
--lots of support bc within 1 year unemployment down by 10% - did a lot for German economy
--popular leader
--incorporation of Austria into Nazi Germany alarmed British prime minister - Chamberlain

39

National Socialism and anti-semitism

national socialism
--the political doctrine of the Nazi Party of Germany

anti-semitism - hostility to or prejudice against Jews
--these racist beliefs led many Jews to Palestine to escape riots
--zionism - belief that European Jews, or all Jews, are entitled to national homeland corresponding to the territory of ancient Israel

40

Common features of "totalitarian" regimes

1. rejection of real democracy
--charismatic leaders and one-party rule

2. state intervention in economy

3. mass organizations employed for state purposes
--people treated like a mobilized army

4. large scale social welfare policies

5. conflicted about WOMEN in public roles
--equality proclaimed but so were gender roles

6. curtailed civil liberties

7. terror and violence used against enemies

8. many admirers and would-be imitators in other countries

41

diff. between fascism and soviet style socialism

1. ideology
--national (often racial) vs. international
--class harmony vs. class warfare
--religious tolerance vs. state atheism

2. private property and private enterprise vs. state control and state ownership

3. benevolent vs. rapacious colonialism

4. "total control" greater for soviets
--even though it promised an eventual withering away of the state

42

diff. between fascism and soviet style socialism

1. ideology
--national (often racial) vs. international
--class harmony vs. class warfare
--religious tolerance vs. state atheism

2. private property and private enterprise vs. state control and state ownership

3. benevolent vs. rapacious colonialism

4. "total control" greater for soviets
--even though it promised an eventual withering away of the state

43

28. The interwar in Asia

most important area for Britain and France after WWI was the Middle East - postwar peace terms gave Brit. and Fr. access to Arab provinces from former Ottoman Empire as MANDATES
--but Arab leaders were strongly opposed
--Britain made "divide and rule" policy in Middle eastern mandate
--Brit. took control of India - protestors against Britain called for self-rule (Swarai) - urged NON-COOPERATION MOVEMENT - wanted "direct democracy" with complete independence from Britain

Swaraj - Bal Gangadhar Tilak focsed on

44

Mohandas Gandhi

advocated nonviolence and self-rule
--nonviolent civil disobediences
--demanded complete independence - in Mar. 1930 - led 24-day SALT MARCH to sea with his followers to pan salt, which gov. had refused to free from taxation
--Brit. gov. succeed at repressing national congress

MUSLIM LEAGUE OF Muhammad Ali Jinnah
--recognized as representative of the Muslisms (Brit. was reluctant to give up colonialism)

GANDHI taught SATYAGRAHA
--insistence on truth or truth-force
--a policy of passive political resistance, especially that advocated by Mahatma Gandhi against British rule in India

45

Japan

after WWI, Jap. ruling class consisted of Samurai who retired and for first time commoners entered politics in Japan
--formed 2 unstable conservative parties that represented small-bus. and landowner interests, but financed by big bus. cartels
--worried about communist influence...created peace preservation law 1925 and anyone violating "national essence" in thought or action could be arrested
--Tokko, secret services, made 70000 arrests btw 1925-45
--law was turning pt. switching from liberalism to militarism
--labor strikes in 1920s

46

Supremacist nationalism in Japan

absolutism of emperor and right of jr. offices to refuse to execute parliamentary laws - led military to achieve dominance over parliament in 1930s

Growth of Chinese nationalist party (GDM) altered fragile balance of power among Japan's efforts to expand
---Japan Kwangtung army blew up train in Manchuria, China 1928
--Mukden incident in 31 - Jap. bombed railroad
--Jap. politicians installed last Manchu Qingchin emperor, Pu-yi (Henry), and later Jap. forced moved from Manchuria to N China to invade

47

China

Qing Dynasty had failed to develop a sustained effort at reform in response to western challenge 1800s
--Boxers rebellion 1900 - after radical groups begin to work on over throwing Qing

leftist - communism, socialism, liberalism

rightist - fascism, conservatism, capitalism

48

Sun Yet-sen

important revolutionary figure -- began revolutionary alliance 1905
--3 groups led uprisings that reduced Qing to small territory in N
--Qing commander, Yuan Shi Kai, made deal to end Qing and give him Presidency of new republic
--he threw sun to the side, even though he had done so much to begin revolution
--remained an inspirational figure in China for nationalists

known for starting/leading the Guomindang - nationalist party (GMD)

49

May 4th movement

1919 - decision by Allies at Versailles to allow Jap. to keep German territory in China it had seized at beg. of war
--this movement is often cited as beg. of modern Chinese nationalism
--inspired by Bolshevik revolution, Chinese communist party (CCP) was founded 1921

1923, Sun's nationalist party reorganized and supplied with Soviet help
--members of CCP joined 3rd communist international (comintern) -- which becomes the First United Front

50

Chiang K'ai Shek

worked to UNIFY China - pretty much succeeded
--lead army after Sun died 1925 - military officer trained in Nationalist party academy in Moscow
--objective: unification of China
--in middle, bonds btw GMD and CCP ruptured
--Chiang was nervous of comintern and CCP motives...he launched a purge of communists in nationalist held areas
--mild effects of Depression on China

51

Mao Zedong

leftist - made his own socialist state - marxist revolutionary ideas - made rural communism
--supported peasants - taught that landlords are enemies - led the "people's war" with three stages

52

The Long March

Chiang wanted to eliminate his internal opponents (Mao's Jiangxi Soviet) - tried to exterminate but Mao's group kept growing - Germany helped Chiang to eliminate communism
--Red army with Mao leading (Oct. 1934) went on 6000 mile Long march from South to Beijing
--communists knew Japan was planning an invasion and used war as propaganda - bc Chiang focused on internal issues, looked like he showed appeasement to Japan
--nationalist leaders arrested Chiang, released as leader - china now at 2nd United front against Japan

Japan won Marco Polo bridge - knew needed to win over China quickly - led Japanese military to do 1st major horror of WWII - Rape of Nanjing
--200-300,000 people slaughtered and raped by Jap. military - foreshadowing of what would come of other cities
--Chinese (nationalists and communists) all gathered in Chongqing city together to unite

53

March 1st movement

one of the earliest public displays of Korean resistance during the rule of Korea by Japan from 1910 into 194
--March 1, 1919
--in Seoul and soon spread throughout the country
--Before the Jap. finally suppressed the movement 12 months later, approximately 2,000,000 Koreans had participated in the more than 1,500 demonstrations. About 7,000 people were killed by the Japanese police and soldiers
--Though the movement failed to bring about its paramount goal of national independence, it was significant in strengthening national unity

54

WWII and Nazi-Soviet pact

Hitler led Lebensroum (living space) in E Europe
--needed to take Poland first...so needed to convince Stalin that it was in best interest of Soviet and Germ. to share in division of E europe
--signed. nonaggressions pact 1939 - Germ. invade Poland - which triggered declarations of war by Poland's allies (Brit. and Fr.) and WWII Egan in Europe
--Germ. had to remove WWI problem (B AND E) so he attacked France next
--France had prepared a highly militarized zone called the MAGINOT LINE on eastern side...but was ineffective as Germ. surprised and attacked from North through Belgium
--"BLITZKNEG" - lightning war - fast, mobile conflict
--attack from North and French troops fled to UK - Fr. surrendered and Hitler divided country into Germ. occupied part
--Germ. failed in attacking Brit. bc poor airfare -

also bc WINSTON CHURCHILL replaced Camberlain as prime minister - his will during general battle of Britain was turning pt. in rallying Allied cause
--which was a battle of air - Royal Air Force won

55

Stalingrad and Operation Barbarossa

Operation Barbarossa - original name Operation Fritz, during World War II, code name for the German invasion of the Soviet Union
--failure of German troops to defeat Soviet forces in the campaign signaled a crucial turning point in the war

Hitler surprised Stalin and invaded Soviet 1941 - Soviet initially losing but had better tans and 4x more people - trapped large # of Germans in Stalingrad - Soviet victory was turning pt. in European war
--after was just Germany trying to retreat from each place

USSR successfully defended against Germany - turning pt. in favor of the allies in the war

56

Final solution

Germ. Supremacist nationalist plan formulated by Hitler to annihilate the Jews through mass extermination - death of 6 Mil. Jews and 2/3 of Euro. Jews

ostarbeiters - Nazi German designation for foreign slave workers gathered from occupied Central and Eastern Europe to perform forced labor in Germany during World War II

57

Allies aggressions WWII and atomic bomb

took 2.5 years, but adv. manpower and industrial capacity of US was detaining factor
-used US and Brit. airfare to bomb - leaving German cities in ruins
--Germany surrenders May 8, 1945 - VE victory in Europe day

Jap. expanding rapidly in Pacific
--US pres. Harry Truman had 2 experimental atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki - Soviets then declared war on Jap. and Jap. knew they had lost - surrendered Aug. 1945

58

Diff. gov. during war periods

constitutionalism and industrialization late 18th/19th century was most visible in Brit, US and Fr. - evolution of nations also involved MODERNITY - which inspired ethnic nationalism and rise of industrial working class (all before WWI)
-after WWI - progressive and modern gov. of capitalist democracy, communism, and supremacist nationalist

ethnic nationalism
--bef. with constitutionalism in B, US and Fr. - ideals of equality - Germ., Italy and Jap. elevated ethnic to supremacist nationalist and adopted imperialism
--Russia: communism used ruins of WWI to turn underdeveloped nation into major industrial empire

capitalist democracy
--free enterprise, market and consumerism - setback in Depression era (wanted new ideas)
--withheld freedom and equality from minorities - comm. industrialized poor nations and provided basic needs of life

supremacist nationalism - attractive to nationalists afraid of communism - constitution was worthless

59

Munich conference

1938 - Hitler met with representatives of the heads of state from France, the United Kingdom, and Italy
--settlement reached by Germany, Great Britain, France, and Italy that permitted German annexation of the Sudetenland in western Czechoslovakia - but he could not attack anywhere else
--Chamberlain and Mussolini for Brit and Italy representing

also later the PACT OF STEEL - when Mussolini and Hitler agreed to work together to form Axis powers - signed to formalize Rome-Berlin alliance

60

Stepan Bandera

Ukrainian political activist and a leader of the nationalist and independence movement of Ukraine

Soviet partisans were members of resistance movements that fought a guerrilla war against the Axis forces in the Soviet Union and the previously Soviet-occupied territories of interwar Poland

61

Vichy France

Vichy government of France after Germany defeated and occupied it at the beginning of World War II
--Vichy, the capital, is a small city in central France - Vichy government was essentially a puppet of the Germans
--france was divided into two
--occupied zone by Germany (included Paris) - it was N zone
--free zone - in south France that included Vichy

German troops had rolled into the streets of Paris from the northwest today and swung triumphantly down the famous Champs Eylsees - went through and around the Arc de Tromphe

62

Greater Eat Asia co-prosperity sphere

Pacific theater
--Pacific Ocean theater, during World War II, was a major theater of the war between the Allies and the Empire of Japan
--AM. GENERAL Douglas McArthur played large role in Pacific theater
... In the other major theatre in the Pacific region, known as the South West Pacific theatre, Allied forces were commanded by US General Douglas MacArthur
--after bombing pearl harbor - led to US concentration camps of anyone near pacific from Japanese descent
--TOPAZ internment camp in Utah

firebombed Tokyo and atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki
--Soviet invaded Manuchuria (Jap. occupied) - Jap. surrendered

63

ending the war

D-DAY
--United States and allied troops invaded at Normandy. This was the largest air, land, and sea invasion in history. The goal was to surprise Germany, but Germany was ready to fight. It was the beginning of the end of World War II

64

causes of WWII

Rise of fascism and socialism in Europe and militarist dictatorship in Japan
--German and Japanese ambitions to expand - nationalism and racial ideology a large part of this
--cult of offensive remains intact thanks to new technologies

Germany and Italy also helped with Spanish civil war in Spain - supporting the nationalists
--war btwn nationalists and republicans

65

WWII

more global in scope than WWI and more deadly
--55-50 million military personnel, including 5 million German soldiers dead
--20-25 soviet dead
--400,000 US soldiers
--10 million chinese
-5-6 million Jews

results of WWII
--German and Japanese empires broken up
--Anticolonial movements quickly press for nationalism self-determination
--war crimes rob the west of claims to civilizational superiority
--United Nations born to avert future wars
--fascism discredited
--Cold War emerges

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31. Holocaust (genocide definition)

genocide
(UN) - "the deliberate and systematic destruction, in whole or in part, of an ethnic, racial, religious, or national group"
--case law has defined "part" as a substantial part of the group

Holocaust
--destruction or slaughter on a mass scale, especially caused by fire or nuclear war

Shoah
--another term for the Holocaust
--Hebrew for "catastrophe"

Pogrom
--an organized massacre of a particular ethnic group, in particular that of Jews in Russia or eastern Europe

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Eugenics

Cesare Lombroso - Italian physician - father of criminology
--theory of the “born” criminal dominated European and American thinking about the causes of criminal behavior during the late nineteenth century and the early twentieth
--book: criminal man
--book: the female offender

Eugenics
--according to Francis Galton - "the study of all agencies under human control which can improve or impair the racial quality of future generations"

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Protocols of the elders of zion

First Zionist congress, Basel, 1897
--World Zionist Congress established by Theodor Herzl, is the supreme organ of the World Zionist Organization and its legislative authority. It elects the officers and decides on the policies of the WZO and the Jewish Agency

Protocols of the elders of Zion was a famous book
--antisemitic fabricated text purporting to describe a Jewish plan for global domination

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targets of Nazi cleansing campaigns (other than Jews)

KRISTALLNACHT
--Nov. 9 to November 10, 1938, in an incident known as “Kristallnacht”, Nazis in Germany torched synagogues, vandalized Jewish homes, schools and businesses and killed close to 100 Jews
--order police - mainly in Poland Reserve Police Battalion 101

targeted
--Jews
--Polish
--Slavs
--Serbs
--disabled
--Homosexuals
--Gypsies
--Jehovah's witnesses
--Republican spaniards

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32. The Cold War - United Nations

Many smaller countries struggle with influence of Cold War and decolonization
--ethnic and religious conflict, superpower pressure, and nation building in competitive env.

WWII - use of 1st atomic bombs, 50M deaths, most destructive war

YALTA CONFERENCE
--conference, Stalin, Churchill, and Roosevelt discussed Europe's postwar reorganization. The main purpose of Yalta was the re-establishment of the nations conquered and destroyed by Germany

POTSDAM CONFERENCE
--3rd of meetings btw 3 superpowers
--agree on free elections in Eastern Europe - also blame Germany

UNITED NATIONS
--replaced league of nations 19455 - 200 countries with general assembly meeting annually
--security council with permanent members (US, FR, BRIT, RUSSIA, CHINA) and 5 rotating members

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Cold War

as world rebuilt from WWII ruins - US and Russia promoted their version of modernity: capitalist democratic and comm.
--did not want direct confrontation so expansion and conflict through "proxy" states
--russia wanted "socialism in one country" - now including E Euro. - wants to extend influence to Africa and Asia

don't know beg. of Cold War - tensions btw US and USSR rise with beg. of Bolshevik revolution - concerns of expanding communism
--also 1945, Soviet army made secret deal with Brit. Churchill to give Greece to Brit. but Bulgaria and Romania to Russia (Germ. prev. occupied) - Churchill called "iron curtain" crossing Europe (growing communism)

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containment
Truman doctrine
Marshall plan

containment policy - US policy 1946 to limit spread of comm. when possible - confrontations
--taught by George F. Kennan - Am. diplomat
--nikolai novikov was the soviet diplomat who wrote a telegram stressing the dangers of possible U.S. economic and military domination worldwide

Truman doctrine - 47 policy 0 outline steps directed to prevent Greece and Turkey from becoming comm. - through military and Econ. aid

Marshall plan - fin. program of $13B to support reconstruction of 17 Euro. economics - most aid to Fr. Brit, Italy and netherlands
--Stalin rejected aid and forbade Hungary, Czech. and Poland to ask for it
--needed free mkt and convertible currencies - so contradicted comm. central command economy idea

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Berlin Blockade
NATO
Warsaw Pact

Marshal plan also made people capable of fleeing to W part of Germany which irritated Stalin - set up highway/rail blockade of food/supplies to Berlin - US and brit. respond with Berlin airlift
--gail halvorsen - candy bomber
--GDR - German democratic republic (EAST)
--FRG - Federal Republic of Germany (WEST)

soon military involve bc Soviet Inc efforts to build nuclear bomb - US now did not have advantage with nuclear weapons

NATO - US created defensive alliance called North Atlantic Treaty Organization 1949

Russia responds with Warsaw Pact - 1955 among eastern bloc states

use CIA for spy missions, eavesdropping, assassination plots and photographs

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Korean war

Election of 1948 - dispute over holding separate elections in the south
--KIM IL SUNG

june 1950 - NK comm. troops attacked SK for forcible unification
--UN branded NK an aggressor and uN intervened to help SK - fought through to Chin. border
--Stalin aided Chin. to help NK and Chin. comm. pushed UN back
--eisenhower did not want to use nuclear weapons - made agreement to stall fire with NK - no treaty ever signed

Joseph McCarthy - Wisconsin senator - said he had list of members of comm. party - ruined careers and lives of 100s of gov. employees, celebrities and private people

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Nikita Khrushchev

E Germ = Stalin, W Germ = republic and berlin divided into E and W - E upset bc west experiencing economic boom and E had shortages and quotas - the worker begin uprisings and strikes
--called the "ECONOMIC MIRACLE" - The Miracle on the Rhine, describes the rapid reconstruction and development of the economies of West Germany and Austria after World War II

Khrushchev - succeeded Stalin - replaced Stalinists in "Comm.bloc" with new people to improve living conditions - he was tough to west, but supported all anti-colonial independence movements
--reforms gave hope for change in E Europe
--Hungary and Poland divided btw nationalist/reformers and stalinists
--withdrew from Warsaw Pact - but forces intervened and stopped it

Soviet tech. adv. - ICBM (1st intercontinental ballistic missile) - could reach Am.East Coast
--and Sputnik - 1st orbiting sattelite - also sent Yuri Gagarin into space, first cosmonaut to go

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Fidel Castro

1959 - nationalist guerilla fighter opposed to Am. influence in countries with "corrupt gov." seized power in Cuba
--CUBA became symbol of Kroshchev gov. openness toward national liberation movements
--soviet gave lots of $ to cuban economy - Castro embraced communism
--Eisenhower and CIA worked to train anti-comm. dissidents, especially in gautemala to overthrow Castro
--JFK took place and sent independent freedom fighters wit no direct US military support to CUBA - easily defeated - bay of pigs invasion

61 - soviet built Berlin Wall - turned German democratic republic into a prison

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Postwar E Europe

E Soviet bloc - adhered strictly to soviet policies and rigidly controlled by state central;ozatopm by comm. party in Moscow - secret police
--industriliaztion inc. but shortages and rationing goods was common
--soviet propaganda, media sensored, W culture condemned

1st direct confrontation US and Soviet was 1962 - US spy plane discovers missiles in Cuba - JFK orders destruction and naval blockade so Russia could not send more to Cuba
--Russia recalled ships and Kennedy removed missiles from Turkey
--signed the NUCLEAR TEST BAN TREATY 1963 - ban above ground testing of nuclear weapons

KIRCHEN DEBATE - VP Nixon and Khrushchev debate about capitalism and communism in the middle of a kitchen 1959

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End of cold war
detente

result victory for democracy and capitalism
--despite nuclear ban treaty, US and Soviet still enemies - both cont. to upgrade tech. and weapons

detente
--60s/70s - French word for "release of tension"
--downplaying of overt aggression and pursuit of competition through diplomatic, social, and cultural means
--in end, Soviet's resources were not sufficient to outlast west
--detente ends with Egyptian and Syrian attack on Israel - Arab-Israel conflict beg. - soviet support OPEC oil boycott on US - Soviet also support N Vietnam final push to take S Vietnam after us withdrew forces

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Soviet Failures in Cold war

1. Sino-Soviet split 1960 (took our aid from China)
2. Berlin wal was propaganda failure
3. backing down in cuban missile crisis - led Soviet's to oust Khrushchev as leader - the soviet Politburo released ear

to be at peace
1 treaty - discourage development of nuclear weapons
2. additional protection and security for missile defense
3. direct telephone link btwn White House and Kremlin so could warn if accident or false attack signal

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Prague spring

Leonid Brezhnev took Khrushchev place in Soviet - lots of dissent in his era, as many countries wanted relaxed attitude on criticism of regime, market reforms, attention to consumer demands, and limited trade with west

prague spring
--1968 - dissent in direct force in Czech. - Alexander Dubcek came to power - wanted decentralized admin. structure, relaxed censorship, opposition political parties
-under Breszchnev - sent Warsaw Pact forces to oust Dubcek and install Husak to replace and end reforms

Brezhnev doctrine
--ended dissent for a time
-right of Soviets and Warsaw Pact to forcibly restrain any member country attempting to abandon alliance with soviet union

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2nd wave feminism

60s and 70 - 1st wage achieved suffrage
--Cold War inspired movement for equality in gender
--remove restrictions on reproduction and sexual freedoms - dec. laws on contraception and abortion
--also push for equal pay for equal work and social freedom to pursue careers outside the home

Simone de Beauvoir
--laid the foundation for modern feminism

Betty Friedan
--The Feminine Mystique (1963),
--explored idea of women finding personal fulfillment outside of their traditional roles
--adv. women's rights movement as one of the founders of the National Organization for Women (NOW)

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Supranational organizations

international group or union in which the power and influence of member states transcend national boundaries or interests to share in decision making and vote on issues concerning the collective body
--example UN
--NATO and WARSAW PACT
--International monetary fund
--world bank
--general agreement on tariffs and trade
--European coal and steel community

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European coal and steel community

1952 - (ECSC), administrative agency established by a treaty
--designed to integrate the coal and steel industries in western Europe
--original members of the ECSC were France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg

McDonald's peace theory
--indicative of how trade could cause peace
--two countries with McDonalds will not go to war

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the thaw

Thaw in the Cold War: Eisenhower and Khrushchev at Gettysburg. Perhaps a change of scene would make a difference. Dwight D. Eisenhower and Nikita Khrushchev, opposing leaders of the United States (U.S.) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) at the height of the Cold War in 1959, had reached an impasse

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Red army faction (Baader-Meinhof Gang)

Red army Faction (Germany)
-- West German radical leftist group formed in 1968 and popularly named after two of its early leaders, Andreas Baader and Ulrike Meinhof
--Baader-Meinhof Gang
--kidnapped Hanns Martin Schleyer 1977

Red Brigade (Italy)
--militant left-wing organization in Italy that gained notoriety in the 1970s for kidnappings, murders, and sabotage. Its self-proclaimed aim was to undermine the Italian state and pave the way for a Marxist upheaval led by a “revolutionary proletariat.”

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33. East Asia after WWII

Asia experience rapid pop. growth and urbanization - although political independence in America...Asia still had dominant colonialism - Brit and Fr. had holds so all independence movements failed at 1st

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China and Great Leap fwd

peasant based economy - Mao interpreted marxism and China depended on aid of Stalin - with Khrushchev, Soviets withdrew all advisors from hina
--WWII ends with severed alliance of comm. under Mao Zedong and nationalists under Chiang K'ai Seek - comm. at advantage
--the US withdrew, hyperinflation, Chiang fled and China became New People's Republic of China by Mao vision and modern communism - "China stood up"

no opposing parties - if "rightist" beliefs - forced "reeducation" in prisons - focus on agriculture and land reforms

Great leap forward
--rapidly transform Chin from agrarian economy to socialist society - rapid industrialization and collectivization
--failed - peasants land confiscated and MAJOR famine - 30 M died

WWII many counties I ruins - varieties of communism - underdeveloped and in poverty - looking to examples of communist countries (China and Soviet) showed poor countries could quickly become rich and powerful (capitalism was uncertain) - also Marx claims capitalism and imperialism causes underdevelopment

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Great Proletarian Cultural revolution in China

Mao calls on the youth to rededicate themselves to a continuous revolution
--Cultural revolution - socio-political movement by Mao that purged remnants of capitalist and traditional elements from Chinese society and reimposed Maoist thought at the dominant ideology within the communist party
--students formed squads of red guards and attacked their teaches, bosses and elders - millions of red guards met in Beijing where Mao addressed them in TIANANMEN SQUARE
--bruned Buddhist statues
--when cultural revolution officially over, millions were murdered by red guars - led country to chaos - cultural revolution led to a civil war so Mao declared it over

when Mao died - set up new open door policy to western expertise - study abroad - allow mkt. forces of capitalism to encourage innovation - "responsibility system" - experiments of capitalism - market incentives - rapidly approached self-sufficiency by 80s, surpluses in 90s and 2010 surpassed Japan as 2nd largest economy in the world -GDP double digits!!

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Tiananmen Square massacre

pro-democracy protest took place in Beijing after death of leader Hu Yaobang 89
--People's army shot the protestors - massacre
--today still don't know the number killed

People's revolution ARMY - Beijing
--People's Liberation Army, Unified organization of China's land, sea, and air forces. It is one of the largest military forces in the world
--Nanchang Uprising of the communists against the Nationalists
--initially called the Red Army, it grew under Mao Zedong

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Vietnam War

Vietnam had constitution and president in office after former President was overthrown
--had US support, but gov. had complaints of corruption and no popular support...fell to communists 1975
--64 - US supported S Vietnam naval rid on 2 N Vietnamese islands provoked N Vietnam retaliation with torpedo boats against American ships in Gulf of Tonkin
--1968 - N attacked South Vietnamese capital - Am. and SV attacked back - it was seen as ineffective, loss and many Americans did not want to participate - Pres. Nixon world too negotiate to end war - Am. exit left SV to become united with NV under communist rule

battle of Saigon - final
--The city was thereby renamed Ho Chi Minh City, after North Vietnam's source of inspiration, their Communist leader. The Fall of Saigon was a very important event because it marked not only the end of the Vietnam War, but the beginning of the formal reunification of Vietnam under Communist Rule

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Khmer Rouge

Cambodian revolutionary group
--most of Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos was devastated after fighting and bombing
--communists in the dominant ethnic group Khmers launched radical program of urban depopulation, forced labor, and mass killing against religious and political opponents - 1/3 of countries pop. killed as a result
--Pol Pot lead genocides - Vietnam invaded and then China invaded Vietnam in response

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Economic developments in Jap. and SK

Hideki Tojo war crimes trial
--Japanese prime minister - chief of staff in Manchuria
--as prime minister, Tojo approved the attack on Pearl Harbor and was responsible for all aspects of the war effort
--tried by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East for war crimes and found guilty of, among other things, waging wars of aggression

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Economic developments in Jap. and SK
domino theory

Hideki Tojo war crimes trial
--Japanese prime minister - chief of staff in Manchuria
--as prime minister, Tojo approved the attack on Pearl Harbor and was responsible for all aspects of the war effort
--tried by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East for war crimes and found guilty of, among other things, waging wars of aggression

dominio theory
--the theory that a political event in one country will cause similar events in neighboring countries, like a falling domino causing an entire row of upended dominoes to fall

Japan rec. new constitution in 1947

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Ho Chi Minh
Deng Xiaoping

Ho Chi Minh
--Nationalist revolutionary Ho Chi-Minh was president of North Vietnam from 1954 to 1969. He ranks among the most famous and influential politicians of the 20th century
--travelled to southern China to organise a revolutionary movement among Vietnamese exiles, and in 1930 founded the Indo-Chinese Communist Party (ICP). He spent the 1930s in the Soviet Union and China
--Battle of Dien Bien Phu was the decisive engagement in the first Indochina War
--significant turning point in Indochina. The battle was fought between the French and the Vietminh (Vietnamese Communist and nationalist). The French wanted to reclaim Vietnam as one of their colonies, while the Vietnamese wanted their independence
--lots of French POW after this battle
--HO CHI MING declared Vietnamese independence on day of Jap. surrender - helped draft Vietnamese declaration of independence

Deng Xiaopig
--Chinese communist leader, who was the most powerful figure in the People's Republic of China from the late 1970s until his death in 1997

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34. Decolonization in South Asia and Africa

Indian partition

after WWI nationalist forces arose - war had diminished holdings of Fr. and Brit. in several colonies - they were seeking independence from Brit. and French and individually rec. it - major countries each began to decolonize

Ghandi wanted an Indian nation with a constitution that would trump any ethnic or religious identities...but Muslims wanted religious nationalism and a separate state to themselves...same with Hindus
--Brit. negotiators listened to Islamic religious nationalists and accepted independence with partition
--India and Pakistan became separate independent countries
--quickly had to relocate to new homes....300,00 Indians died in the violent process - included Ghandi who was killed by an assassin

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Jawaharlal Nehru

India's first prime minister - worked to tie subcontinent's disparate constituencies together into a united gov.
-local princes surrender their realms to the national gov.
--adopted Brit. court systems and parliamentary - new modern gov. of socialism
--adopted 5 year plan of development in India. - agriculture and industrialization
--inc. famine and poverty problems

Nehru argued that poverty could only be overcome by rapid industrialization by state and its financial power

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non-aligned movement

one of the most momentous events in post war efforts was dismantling of colonial empires from western powers and their becoming new nation states
--problems with poverty, developmental gaps and ethnic/religious conflicts
--25 prev. colonial countries met int a conference 1955 in Indonesia
--agreed on Afro-asian solidarity and cooperation and opposed colonialism by Amy country
--adopted a 10point declaration of world peace and cooperation

became official policy of India - still in existence today
--sought to maintain neutrality in the Cold War and was successful in maintaining its own course independent from western and Soviet blocs

India took a capitalist democratic constitutionalism with private property and guided socialist state investments

NON ALIGNE MOVEMENT - an international, anti colonialist movement that promoted the interests of countries not aligned with the superpowers

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Kwame Nkrumah

Leader of Ghana
--Brit. decided to decolonize and they sought independence - supported nationalist groups that adopted Brit. inspired constitutions and abided by British rules
--Ghana - healthy economy and vital middle class
--Nkrumah was huge advocate for African independence
--2 years into his rule...he discarded the original independence constitution and created a mew republican constitution, removing the country from British Commonwealth
--one year later he turned to socialist state planning
--lader changed Ghana to one party state with Nkrumah himself a leader for life
--eventually too much foreign debt an CIA and army ousted Nkrumah 1966

HUGE INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT IN GHANA

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Mau Mau movement

in face of British opposition, African nationalists formed the Mau Mau movement, resorted to aterrorist attacks on British states
--first instated in Kenya - finally granted independence

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Patrice Lumumba

Congo - colonized by Belgium - revolutionist argued with each other - some were nationalists and some supported centralized state
--Patrice Lumumba founded the urban and mine work erased National Congolese Movement - wanted a centralized constitutional nationalism that transcended ethnicity, language and religion
--Belgium wanted to cont. as was..but after riots put Lumumba in prison - later released, national elections had centralists won - Lumumba became prime minister and Congo became independence with a new president
--internal problems and Lumumba turned to UN for help...UN restored order - then Lumumba turned to soviet for help - worried about Cold War beg. in Africa and that lumumba was new Castro
--Belgian and Am. gov. intervened (to avoid spread of comm.) and Lumumba removed

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Joseph Mobutu

replaced Lumumba as prime minister of Congo - became a dictator of Congo and was close ally of US during his power - worked with Nixon
--he had Lumumba arrested and executed

after decolonization and independence movements Africa...the problem turned to be development - hard bc so many examples to turn to and adopt...normally applied same principles of their former colonial regimes...used when they were colonies
---diff. also bc they were competing in markets for these products against so many other former colonies at same time

Robert Mugabe
--Zimbabwean revolutionary and politician who served as Prime Minister of Zimbabwe from 1980 to 1987 and then as President from 1987 to 2017

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Apartheid

System of social and legal segregation by race enforced by the gov. of South Arica from 1948 - 94
---used in South Africa bc lots of settlers there from the colonies they came from!
--this relegated blacks to a legal second-class status

it was opposed by several black political organizations - liked ANC - African National Congress - campaigned for ending Apartheid
--international boycotts - communism collapsed and new president worked to dismantle apartheid
--ANC was legalized and became South Africa's largest political party - led by NELSON MANDELA (who had been inprisoned for almost 3 years) - 91 all apartheid laws repealed, 92 racial equality in voting
--94 first multiracial elections held and Mandela became president of new South Africa.

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Algerian war of independence

from France
--movement for independence began during World War I (1914–18) and gained momentum after French promises of greater self-rule in Algeria went unfulfilled after World War II (1939–45). In 1954 the National Liberation Front (FLN) began a guerrilla war against France and sought diplomatic recognition at the UN to establish a sovereign Algerian state
--Charles de gaulle was leader of France

National Liberation front (FLN)
--political party in Algeria
--ought to reconcile the warring factions of the nationalist movement and to wage war against the French colonial presence in Algeria

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35. radicalism in third world

Latin Am.
rapid pop. growth after war
--massive rural pop,, large middle class, limited industrialization
--hurt by dec. commodity export markets in depression - but no impact from WWII bc not involved - large growth in urbanization but also inc. in poverty levels

these countries gained their independence in 2 waves
1. after WWI due to local pressures

2. during Cold War - as each realized Brit. and Fr. could not hold their colonies in a world dominated by America and the Soviet Union

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Partition of Palestine 1947

WWII ended and Palestine diff. for Britain
--Palestinian-Zionist impasse - Britain turned question on Palestine independence to UN
--developed partition plan and Israel later declared independence too

also the BALFOUR DECLARATION
--was a signed stmt. that Britain would help establish a Jewish home in Palestine

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Gamel Abdel Nasser

Egyptian Colonel - bitter toward Egyptian royalty and landowner who supported them - bc netter had done much for the country to support during the war
--"free officers" led by Nasser took power, closed down parliament and sent king to exile - bloodless and little reaction in streets
--Nasser made himself President
--muslim nation in Egypt

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the 6 day war

For Palestinian Arabs...the rise of Israel was "the disaster" - 1000s were displaced since 1948 and waiting to return
--during Cold War, Arabs saw Israel as Arab territory
--Arab nationalism resembled socialism and Soviet's supported

Yasir arafit formed the PALESTINE LIBERATION ORGANIZATION (PLO) who began guerrilla war against Israel
--Egypt closed the Gulf to Israel shipping - prevented importing of Oil
--the Pres. Nasser relied on secret information
--local Muslim forces called on war with Israel

June - Israel attacked Arab forces and had overwhelming advantage in numbers - took out Arab armor and ground troops in six-day war - conquered West Bank, Golan heights, and Sinai peninsula - the territories belonging to Jordan, Syria and Egypt
--Israel was in state of expansion

Muslims later attacked on Israel holy day, Yom Kippur - Israel defeated Aran armies - cease fire called by UN - but US and Soviet were supporting both sides - Arab oil producers and Iran launched oil embargo on US - increased gasoline prices in US

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PALESTINE LIBERATION ORGANIZATION

later moved base from Jordan to Lebanon
--Lebanon was politically Christian dominant but pop. dominant as muslim (divided into Shiite and Sunni)- this led to a war between Christians and PLO - later evolved to Christians vs. Muslims and Christians were losing

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Iranian Islamic Revolution

Shah Reza Pahlavi - was driven into exile by urban demonstrations
--he had held a monarchy and started the white revolution - to bring agricultural reforms and inspire industrial growth

Khomeini took power after returning from exile - reeled on The Islamic Government book to stage Iranian revolution
--he ruled by the Quran and Islamic tradition - Iranian women follow dress code, men and women are gender segregated
--have constitution for elections for President...but ultimate authority goes to a "spiritual guide" who is selected

Iran hostage crisis
--52 US diplomats and citizens held hostage for 444 days from 1979- 1981
--after group of Iranian students belonging to the Muslim Student Followers of the Imam's Line, who supported the Iranian Revolution, took over the U.S. Embassy in Tehran

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Saddam Hussein

during Iranian revolution - he was president of Iraq and decided to invade the oil rich Khuzistan
--started the Iran-Iraq war - UN eventually intervened and Pres. Jimmy Carter ended it

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President Salvador Allende

60s - Latin America had achieved independence but had economical worries
--US had fought and enforced elections in Nicaragua (Jacobo Árbenz was 2nd democratic elected president) and El Salvador
--Salvador Allende was president of Chile - he had many opposing ideas to Chile - and Nixon and CIA supported his opposers and had him removed

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Cuban revolution and the Argentine dirty war

--Che Guevara was a communist in Argentina - he was a military advisor to Castro in Cuban revolution
--Cuban revolution ended in overthrow of Gov. - placed Castro as leader of comm. Cuba

Argentine dirty war
--Juan Peron was president of Argentina and wanted Peronist movement - back to ideas his political ideas
-the war was initiated by military junta that overthrew authoritarian regime of the perons in Argentina
-real and alleged leftist Argentinians were kidnapped, imprisoned and killed - victims called the "disappeared"
--still searching for man y tortured, killed disappeared people - and those who led this act are in prison today

SHINING PATH
--Group in PERU who wanted to overthrow the democratic gov. and replace with communism

Jose Figueres Ferrer - was president of Costa Rica

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Outcome of 60s to 91

at first Cold War had contest btwn capital democracy and various forms of communism-socialism
--in end, bc of US power ninth west - Soviet worn down
-China changed from radical leftist programs to capitalist style of market economics
--many countries looking for a mixture of the 2 o a 3rd alternative
--Soviet adopted democratic political values and introduced capitalism
--culture and ideology played large role in growth of Latin America and Africa - believed progress was possible and made great strides - almost allAsian countries developed and grew

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Israel-Arab wars

Arab-Israeli war 1947-8
--established Israel as an independent country

56 Suez canal
--Israel briefly seized Sinai Peninsula and Gaza strip

67 - 6 day war
--Israel defeated Egypt, sYRIA AND jORDAN
--rec. sinai peninsula, gaza strip, West Bank and Golan Heights

73 - Yom Kippur War
--Israel defeats a Arab coalition

MUNICH MASSACRE 1972
--The Munich massacre was an attack during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, in which the Palestinian terrorist group Black September took eleven Israeli Olympic team members hostage and killed them along with a German police officeR

Chador - traditional garment worn by women
--Burqa - full veil and coverage worn that hides eyes and entire head and face

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Banana republic

banana republic
--In political science, the term banana republic describes a politically unstable country with an economy dependent upon the exportation of a limited-resource product, e.g. bananas, minerals (Honduras)

Pope John Paul II - Became first ever non-Italian pope in 1978

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36. end of Cold War - Afghan - Soviet war

made agreement called START to end US and Soviet development of nuclear weapons and decrease some of them

--1979 - Soviet invaded Afghanistan and put in Communist leader with massive military force to back him up
--Pres. Ronald Reagan - began developing Strategic Defense initiative called "star wars" to work on missiles and defense - strategic arms race with Russia'
--but cost of Afghanistan war and arms race was too much for Russia

1972 - Nixon visited China - open relations with China to gain leverage over Soviet Union

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Michael Gorbachev

Replaced Brezhnev
--called for large reforms: bc facing costly Afghan war, arms race, inefficient economy
--launched two economic programs:

1. PERESTROIKA - "restructuring" of soviet bureaucracy and economic structure in attempt to make it more efficient and responsive to market demand
--factories could see to market...not give all to state - did not work as intended...still shortages - but led way to rise of capitalism

2. GLASNOST - "openness" - attempt to loosen restrictions on media in Soviet Union with aim of more accurate reporting of events and creation of socialist pluralism

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Lech Walesa and fall of communism and Berlin Wall

--all countries in Soviet Bloc were in heavy debt from oil imports - Russia oil price collapsed and debts worsened - protest in each of the companies

Communist party in Poland permitted first free elections in over 40years and Lech Wales was elected Poland's first president 1990 - solidarity won in Poland
--SOLIDARITY IN POLAND
--an independent trade union movement in Poland that developed into a mass campaign for political change and inspired popular opposition to communist regimes across eastern Europe during the 1980s

later GDR East Ger, protests led to fall of Communism and Berlin Wall in the same night 1989

by 89 - most of the 15 states occupied by Soviet had declared independence and freed from communism - Gorbachev agreed with state presidents

Soviet Union ended on Christmas qDay 1991 - replaced by commonwealth of Independent states

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Chernobyl

On April 26, 1986, the world's worst nuclear accident happened at the Chernobyl plant near Pripyat, Ukraine, in the Soviet Union. An explosion and fire in the No. 4 reactor sent radioactivity into the atmosphere. ... Plant operators made several mistakes, creating a poisonous and unstable environment in the reactor core
--is the only accident in the history of commercial nuclear power to cause fatalities from radiation - soviet error

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Reykjavik Sumit 1986

The Reykjavik summit meeting between Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev on October 11-12, 1986 has remained in history as a near successful attempt of leaders of nuclear powers to agree on complete elimination of nuclear weapons
--Mikhail Gorbachev won nobel peace prize in 1990

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after Soviet fell and communism destroyed - US was superpower

1. bc US dollar functioned as currency for all oil sales and purchases
2. its giant consumer economy - US functioned as world's favored destination for manufactured goods
--US became country to which everyone wanted to export - US had helped lots of countries in Asia to develop - thinking if they were prosperous they would be less susceptible to communism

America became leader in High tech industry - introduced IT (info. tech.) so cell phones, music, entertainment and services in hands of consumers

GLOBALIZATION process - Bill Clinton - many countries still displayed protectionism - low consumption of goods which hurts global trade - globalization is process of integrating norms of market economies throughout the world and binding economies into a single uniform system

US trying to help by the motto "stabilize, privatize and liberalize" to emerging nations

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US wars in Iraq and Afghanistan

national security wanted to prevent countries from establishing dominance in a region and destroy terrorism against US
--Saddam Hussein occupied Kuwait and sought dominance over middle eastern oil exports - George bush and UN sent US troops to Iraq
--UN and US stopped Saddam Hussein's efforts to acquire nuclear and chemical weapons - they were successful in destroying but Hussein did his best to pretend he still possessed them
--Bush sent in forces to invade and inspect - Iraq fell quickly and found no weapons

Afghanistan
--US also responding to rise of Muslim terrorism
--AL QUADA ("the base") under leadership of Osama Bin laden emerged as principle international terrorist group
--Al Quada campaign climaxed on 9/11 when suicide commandos hijacked 4 commercial airlines and crashed in to world trade centers twin towers in NYC, Pentagon outside Washington DC and field in Penn.
--US troops invaded Afghanistan in response - tried to eliminate Bin Laden, who was protected by the Israel Taliban - drove al Qaida terrirusts terrorists to Pakistan - took 10 years to track down Bin Laden and kill him (2011)

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Rwandan civil war

90s and 2000s the UN fulfilled vital peace missions
--but failed in Rwandan civil war 1994 - peacekeeping troops serving under UN stood by has HUTU ethnic majority massacred the Tutsi ethnic minority

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Vladimir Putin

russia defaulted in internal bonds and external loans
--GDP dropped by half in 1990s
--Vladimir Putin became president of Russia - autocracy - Russia still years from market rules and comprehensive market economy
--Putin curtailed civil rights - restricted press freedom and made it diff. for NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOs) and human rights movements to operate in Russia
--when Ukrainian president was overthrown 2014 - Putin seized opportunity to seize Crimea Ukraine

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two recessions in West and economic inequality

1. dot-com crise - 2001-3 bc speculations of expansion of the internet
2. 2008-11 - collapse of housing market

economic inequality
--many white workers lost jobs in 2nd recession - huge gap in classes

now had fear of Islamism - reformed Sunni or Shiite islam of 20th century to. define all institutions of the state and society

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Civil war I Yugoslavia

Went through economic collapse like Russia
--communism was main ideology in Yugoslavia until 1980s - the country had borrowed heavily from western countries to keep industries from collapsing during oil price slump
--led to religious nationalist hatred - led by small ethnic groups - Serb supremacist nationalist wanted to "Cleanse" minorities from greater Servian territory
--UN and US worked to stop them from murdering muslims and Albanians
--separete to 5 Yugoslavia states of capitalism and democracy - struggling

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Hamas

It was the Islamic Resistance Movement
--short term goal was to liberate Palestine, including modern-day Israel, from Israeli occupation
--long-term aim sought to establish an Islamic state from the Jordan River to the Mediterranean Sea


Israel was at peace in 94 with Arab neighbors Egypt and Jordan
--but gov. had to protect from Hostile guerrilla attacks - built a border fence on Gaza Strip 2005
=--Hamas ruled Gaza and split with PLO - Israel invaded Gaza which destroyed a lot of Palestinian pop. in Gaza - but Hamas was not defeated

New President in Iran, Hasan Rouhan - signed treaty with US and UN 2015 to sirgn nuclear deal dand stop building nuclear bombs for 15 years

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Arab Spring 2011

Prior to this, Turkey was cited model for compatability of Islam and democracy in middle east
--but Arab nations went under constitutional revolutions - Egypt
--Mohamad Bouazizi set himself on fire in act of despair by humiliations inflicted on him by Tunisian policewoman - his death led to several peaceful democratic revolutions called Arab Spring
--pro-democracy protests - carried about by social networking sites (Twitter, FB, YouTube) - internet is a product of the Cold War
--gained power but could not translate it into electoral victories
--elections each brought Islamist parties to power

in Syria - hoped of Arab spring crushed immediately
--led to civil war in Syria by pro-democracy protestors


THE FIRST INTIFADA - Was uprising of Palestinians against Israeli occupation of West Bank - Israel kills many Palestinians

--2ND INFITADA
--Second Intifada started in September 2000, when Ariel Sharon made a visit to the Temple Mount, also known as Al-Haram Al-Sharif, an area sacred to both Jews and Muslims. ... It is the holiest site in Judaism and it is the right of every Jew to visit the Temple Mount


ISIS - Islamic state in Iraq and al-Sham
--pristine Islam of Quran and Sunna
--brutality - led by former Al Qaeda operative - built a state in NE Syria
--ISIS troops attacked Iraq 2014 -

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global and industrial changes

1800 - Britain was only country embarking on industrialization - now 196 independent countries in the world are industrialized or on the way - the obstacle is poverty - or ignorance and lack of education in poor countries
--also debate on global warming - many claim greenhouse gases are to blame - chemical compounds and carbon dioxide in the air - don't know of global warming is natural phenomenon or human produced - this may destroy ice caps as they melt and lead to overflowing in ocean levels rise - cover islands and coasts - droughts

China accepted industrialization by expanding middle classes, investment and innovation
--but did not allow multiparty system

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terror attacks in Europe

Moscow theater attack 2002

Madrid train bombings

Berlin school attack

bombings and shootings

Frankfurt airport

Dijon

Charlie Hebdo attacks 2015
--attacks in Paris

November paris attacks 2015

Bastille day attacks 2016

Brussels bombings 2016

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development of human rights

1700s
--novels
--individual freedom
--anti-torture/anti-slavery movements
--declarations

1800s
--rise of nationalism trumps human rights
1900s
-Horror ofWW1/Holocaust
-UN declaration of 1948

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Supranational organization and nongovernmental organization

Supranational
--ogranization of sovereign states united for same purpose - UN. NATO
--NAFTA - The North American Free Trade Agreement, abbreviated NAFTA, is an agreement between the United States, Canada and Mexico that eliminated tariffs and duties on trade between the three countries
--WTO - The World Trade Organization (WTO) is the only global international organization dealing with the rules of trade between nations. At its heart are the WTO agreements, negotiated and signed by the bulk of the world's trading nations and ratified in their parliaments.

Nongov. organization (NGO)
--a non-profit organization standing outside the sphere of gov. devoted to a particular cause
---International Red Cross (Nobel peace prize 3 years)
--amnesty international (1977 NPP)
--Doctors without borders (1971 NPP)
--Human rights watch

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Biafran conflict

The Nigerian Civil War, commonly known as the Biafran War (6 July 1967 – 15 January 1970), was a war fought between the government of Nigeria and the secessionist state of Biafra