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Major changes btw 1450-1750
1. scientific revolution
2. enlightenment

1. scientific revolution
--attempts to find understanding about universe by math and experiment - science becomes chief mode to understand physical realm - apply science to society - leads to SCIENTIFIC INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY

2. Enlightenment
--Middle East, India and China cont. cultural pattern - no changes like Euro. Renaissance and reformation
--Euro's main growth in wealth evolved through conquest and exploitation of resources in U.S. and development of global trading ---> industrial revolution



--muslim or Christian pirates - board ships, confiscate cargoes and hold crew and travelers for ransom - under authority of ottoman Sultan or pope in Rome, but operated independently
--comp. btw Muslim and Christian religions



Christian conquest - to Iberia - Port. to N. Africa bc wanted to circumnavigate Muslims (W. Af. gold) and reach Indian spice coast
--Port. sent Colombus to find alternate route to India
--sea trade - led to exploring Eastern Atlantic

--The Reconquista was a very significant event in Spain. This event began in 718 and ended in 1492. The Reconquista refers to the defeat of the Moors, or Muslims, in Spain in 1492 by the Christians. ... When King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella ruled Spain, they continued to fight the Moors.
--was not complete until 1492. In 1479, King Ferdinand II of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile married, uniting their kingdoms, and thirteen years later their armies expelled the Muslims from Granada.


military orders

papacy encourage formation of monastic fighting orders to combat Muslims in Jerusalem

Apocalypse - Greek "revelation" - end of world and Christ's return - believed he would return to Jerusalem ---> made urgent for Christians to reconquer city from Muslims
---Christians and Muslims saw NO diff. btw religion and military conquest - justified that God was on side to help them convert and conquer



Port. reconquis stimulated reconquest of 2 monarchs (Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand II) to speed up political and religious reform
--rel. reform - education and enforce Christian doctrine - Spanish Inquisition in charge


Vasco da Gama

1498 - circumnavigation of Africa and journey to India - 6 mo. and arrived in Calicut (Ain spice trade center on Indian west coast)
--sent to seek Christians and spices
--wet around Africa to India - also journeys to Brazil


Christopher Columbus

--sent by Castil Isabella and Ferdinand - goals to reach India before Portugal - landed in Bahamas (not India) and returned with gold
--sponsored in 1492


Zheng He

- Chinese seaman traveling around Asian lands ensuring countinued Chinese allegiance and tribute. Ended voyages mid 1400s because of domestic affairs
- had 7 voyages, like Sinbad



Cartaz was a naval trade license or pass issued by the Portuguese in the Indian ocean during the sixteenth century, under the rule of the Portuguese empire

Port. trade license in Indian Ocean - 1502



--New dev. in science and Phil. made cultural changes in Euro. - but ind. leading changes held diff. ideas than Catholics and Protestants - science and intellectual culture eventually led to industrial revolution

Renaissance - around 1400 "Rebirth" of culture based on new publications and translations of Greek, Hellenistic and Roman authors who's writings were unknown prev. in Western Christianity - ended middle "Scholastic" age
--began in Italy and led to movement of humanism



--intellectual movement focusing on human culture in fields such as philosophy, philology, and literature - based on corpus of Greek and Roman texts (found and translated during Renaissance)
--Italian scholars learned Greek and translated doc., plays, manuscripts - helped by the development of the printing press - also learned Aristotle, Plato, Hellenistic texts


Nicole Machiovelli

wrote "the prince" - argued Italy needed a unifier with indomitable spirit to take proper steps to achieve political success (inspired by Aristotle and big supporter of him)
--inspired during Renaissance period


Renaissance arts

--sculptors and architects -Brunelleschi - rec. inspiration from Roman imperial statues and ruins
--imp. artists in Italy were Da Vinci, Michelangelo and Raphael
--music (Prot. and Cath. demand for hymns) and theater (Shakespeare - England)


The Baroque Arts

1600-17500 - influenced by:
1. Prot. reformation, Cath. reformation and religious wars changed naturally of patronage - many proc. opposed imagery so did not sponsor artists to adorn buildings with religious art

2. Renaissance balance and restraints - led to dramatics and spontaneity in art - shifted to "Baroque" decorations in Bavarian and Austrian churches, Versailles, St. Paul's Cathedral
--composers - Vivaldi and German Bach


New Sciences

mathematized sciences (physics) introduced in 1500s
--diff. btw Scholastic Aristotelian Science and Hellenistic (Copernicus) - which was math, astronomy, and geography
--1600s, Galileo and Newton abandoned qualitative science method (Aristotle) in favor of math. science of physics
--Newton's ideas became foundation of modern - scientific industrial society


Nicolaus Copernicus

--German, study astronomy and taught math in Rome
--read "geography" by Ptolemy - earth as sphere and land of water - Columbus discover of Am. was proof of Sphere theory - led to idea of spherical earth revolving around sun


Galileo Galilei

"law of falling bodies" - established the New Sciences using geometry, algebra, and physics in science
--fame inc. and upset Cath. church - supported Copernicus idea and refuted Bible (Josh. 10:12-13) - put on house arrest - fear to other scientists in Cath. reformation - but countries with no dominant religion (France, Germ., Neth., Engl.) allowed new science to flourish
--1st to use telescope


Isaac Newton

--study Calc. and prof. at Cambridge - raised in middle of Eng. struggles btwn Prot. and Cath.
--support Copernicus and Galileo
--published "Math principles of natural philosophy" 1687 - established math rules and formed basis of science in 20th cent. (Einstein)


New sciences and social impact

--Cath. reformation led new sciences to NW Euro. - new science univ. and speeches
--14% German astronomers were women - met in SALON (big in Paris) - univ. hostile to new ideas - aristocrats and prof. meet in salons to discuss and develop new ideas
--salon became home to female scholars bc univ. would not admit women
--invent vacuum and steam engine - new science to engineering

new science led to new intellectual, religious and political thinking (critique Christian doctrine)


Rene Descartes

French - 1st major new scientist who started radial reconsideration of Phil. - geometry converted (by algebra) to analytical geo.
--shocked at condemnation of Galileo and abandoned doctrines of church
--said 5 senses unreliable - only reliable body of knowledge is thought - esp. math thought - "I think, therefore I am"
--computed he was composed of 2 diff. substances (material - body and senses) and (immaterial - thinking mind)
--stim. debate - which more imp. - sensual body exp. or mental activity
--Led to Hobbes and John Locke


Centralizing states

gov. where one in which power or legal authority is exerted or coordinated by a de facto political executive to which federal states, local authorities, and smaller units are considered subject

-Fr., Russian, and Prussian (landed cent. state) and Dutch and Eng. (naval cent. state)
--rulers cent. state power, collect taxes, curbed decentralizing forces of nobility, cities and local institutions
--16th cent. - kingdoms turned mercenary troops into STANDING ARMIES and stationed them in star shaped forts - req. drills and maneuvers so led permanent regiments and standardized uniforms
--soldier # inc. but military expensive - Euro. taxes inc.
--bc severe limits on raising revenue - 18th cent. saw deterioration of state finances ---> contributed to Am. and French Revolution

standing army - a permanently organized military force maintained by a nation


Passion plays

In the Spanish Habsburg empire - culture strongly religious - Catholic

300s - dramatic representation and reenactment of the trial, suffering and death of Christ - still an integral part of Holy Week in Cath. countries today - bc close association btw state and church - Spanish crowd created feast days and included passion plays - during Holy Week (week before easter)
--but week after Easter in contrast was joyful celebrations



Port. "act of faith" - show trial in which state judged a person's commitment to Cath. - Spanish Inquisition investigate Muslims and Jewish Converts to Cath. in secret trials - torture


Protestant Reformation

broad movement to reform the Roman Catholic Church - beg. usually associated with Martin Luther - early 16th century
--Pope expensively reconstructing Vatican - reformation demanded a SIMPLICITY in Christianity
--religious changes (growth of pop. theology due to inventing printing press)
--political changes - inc. inability of popes to appoint bishops outside of Italy
--Kings in fr. Spain, Eng., Sweden were creating centralized states - decrease power of pope



"tickets to heaven" - remission of sins after payment of fine or donation - forgiveness by Church but not God - pope used $ as dues to finance administration


Martin Luther

German Cath. monk - 95 theses - condemned indulgences and other acts differ from Bible (Especially indulgences)
--posts thesis and sets off worldwide questioning of what Christianity truly is
--encouraged elevation of original NT scripture over canon law and papal decisions
--priesthood to all - call German princes to begin church reform - translate bible to German
--Lutheranism - horrified by Peasants war - form or protestant reformation
--BEGINS WITH HIM - accuse Cath. priests of selling indulgences (abuse authority and live lavishly)

other reforms - King Henry VIII in Eng. create Anglican church

ML teaches
--salvation comes through faith alone
--divine knowledge comes from scriptures
--priesthood accessible to all (men)
--no celibacy of priests, monasticism, no saints, no pope
--end corruption in church

he becomes excommunicated and Lutheran church develops


John Calvin and Calvinism

French King Francis I would not allow reform and exiled all who tried
--John Calvin was exiled to Geneva for Protestant reform
--PREDESTINATION - Before earth to heaven or hell - believers hope though faith to get a glimpse of faith - also enforced moral code - promoted wealth to "See fate" -
--France and Netherlands
--agrees with Luther that man is saved by grace alone - in Switzerland


Catholic Reformation

also called counter-reformation - the reaffirmation of Cath. papal supremacy and doctrine of faith with works to prep. to salvation
--practices of absenteeism (bishops in Rome instead of bishoprics) and pluralism (bishops and abbots holding multiple appointments) were abolished
--supported by French and Spanish Kings

--Jesuits - established Cath. schools and univ. - mission to Am. and Asia - self assurance of Cath. against protestants



the doctrine that baptism should only be administered to believing adults, held by a radical Protestant sect that emerged during the 1520s and 1530s
--Anabaptism is a Christian movement which traces its origins to the Radical Reformation. The movement is generally seen as an offshoot of Protestantism, although this view has been challenged by some Anabaptists
--adult baptism
--reborn and baptized again - wanted self-gov. community centered on book of acts - simple - several in holy Roman Empire were tortured and killed


St. Bartholomew's day massacre

1572 Civil war in France - growing Calvinism - Proc. called Huguenots - bc so many... could not all be exiled or executed
--6 days after marriage of King's sister to Huguenots leader, King Henry III of Navarre (later became King IV o f France) - St. Bartholomew's day massacre was Cath. slaughter of 1000s of Huguenots in response to assassination of a French admiral
--result: France became Cath. again


Dutch war of Independence

In Netherlands, Spanish wanted to keep Cath. lie French - Phillip II King of Spain and Neth. persecuted Calvinists - protestants war for liberation - reimpose Cath. - 1000s of rebels executed
---also called the 80 years war
--about Neth. independence from Spain


Civil war in England

Medieval reformers
--John Wycliff - helps translate bible to English (his follower Jan His is burned at stake) - want SIMPLE religion accessible to all

--King Henry VIII in Eng. starts Anglican Church
Prot. in England were calvinists - majority belonged to Anglican Church (eng. Cath. - minority)
--stuart monarchs in Eng. throne - stuarts were head of Anglican state church bc rules of Eng...but they were Catholic
--stuarts wanted to build a centralized state - collected taxes without Parliament's approval
--many Parliament were Puritan - civil war conflict was among 3 kingdoms - Puritan Dominated Eng. Parliament vs. royals
--end - monarchy replaced with republican theocracy

after "glorious revolution" 1688 - Eng. became world dominating naval power


Oliver Cromwell

early 1600s - Puritan ruler of theocracy and new model army (Puritan army in civil war)
--hand picked Parliament
English military and political leader. He served as Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland from 1653 until his death


30 years war in Germany

Jesuit Ferdinand II vs. Protestants
---end in agreement - religious freedom in Germany - territorial integrity
--France became strongest country in Europe

German Peasants war in Holy Roman Empire
--peasantry were in favor of Luther's reform - but Luther did not support them in war bc not acting Christian


King Louis XIV

France's longest reigning monarch - Versailles
--absolutism - emphasized unlimited power of King (under God's divine mandate)
--left many with inc. debts


Religious reform in Russia and Tsar Peter "The Great" (1682-1725)

--landowning aristocracy - bc no large pop. of urban commoners to build centralized state = finance state by exploiting farmers
--Patriarch Nikon - lead Russian reformation and head of Russian Orthodox Church - church rituals have become corrupted and need to revert back to original
--sign of cross - old practice (fingers represent Godhead) new practice (fingers represent trinity)

Peter the Great
Tzar comes from "Caesar" for Russian rulers - sought to establish French centralized state in Russia
--reorganize military - built Ports on Baltic Sea and establish capital in St. Petersburg - firearm - lifelong service - powerful centralized state


John Wesley

led methodism (breaking off Anglicanism) - make religion more simple and meaningul
--say Meth. has too many rituals - can feel god's love in intimate ways
--Calvinism was very serious..Meth. more joyful and uplifting


Discovering Americas

Am. conquered by Spain and Port. 16th century - use labor of native Am. and black slaves imported from Africa
--Am. were huge factor in Euro. changing position in world - Euro. acquire precious metals (2 largest competitor's China and India did not have) - and import agricultural commodities from Am.
--financed expansion with Am. gold and silver
--bc small pox wiped out native am. labor...imported black slaves from Africa


labor-land grants

land grant by gov. to entrepreneur - entitling him to use forced indigenous or imported slave labor to exploit agriculture and mineral sources


Hernan Cortes

Hispaniola - labor grants and rich - sent by Cuban governor to Mexico to find Aztec Empire's gold and silver - used steel weapons and defeated natives (Malinche - Aztec woman translator to Cores)
--captured last Aztec emperor and ended Aztec empire


Francisco Pizarro

1513 - plan to conquer Andean Empire of Incas
--born in Spain - became mayor of Panama City - rumors of gold and silver in south
--arrived at Inca Empire (already slaughtered by small pox) - captured prince and killed many - then capture Incan capital, Cuzco - received lots of gold and silver
--founded Lima

Port. interest in Brazil wood - sed to make red dye

Incan empire - Peru


Establishment of Colonial institutions
-seven years war

Intended to make Am. a territorial expansion of European centralized state

creoles - Am. born European immigrants (mostly Spanish)

labor-assignment - obligation of villagers to send laborers to a contractor - use in mining and paid min. wages - bound by debt
--Brazil imported slaves from Africa - sugar plantations (sugar #1, gold #2)
--traded guns with native am. for fur (Iroquois - native am. group that attacked europeans and dominated fur trade)

seven years war
--Fr. (Army) and Britain (navy) 1756 beg. - Britain wins but with much debt to finance war
--root cause of Am., French, and Haitian revolutions


Columbian exchange

Exchange plants, animals and diseases btwN Am. and old world
--mineral and agricultural exploitation
--before old world had no tomatoes, potatoes or chilies - new world had no apples
--disease killed native pop. by 90%
--Brazil wood and sugar --> tobacco, rice, sugar (Am.)
--Europe benefited the most
--made Euro. more similar to its Chinese and Indian comp. - bc minerals and cash crops - much of wealth acquired was wasted in warfare

-Port. introduce chili peppers to new world - tomatoes, potatoes
--chocolate, tobacco, rubber, Brazil wood

old to new:
-0horses, cows, rate, cats, honey, bees, flirts, bananas. rice


Social Hierarchy in new world

In book
1. CREOLES - estate owners
---heirs of Spanish conquistadors and estate owners - had intermarriage, property, gov. position - native am. forced labor
2. CREOLES - craftsman/traders
---worked with hands - textile manuf. - pottery and leather
3. MESTIZOS (euro. and native am. mix) and MULATTOES (Euro. and Af. mix)
--3rd largest pop. - supervisory positions in mines and estate - dominate in military

new world society
1. Peninsulars - born in Euro living in new world

2. creoles - born new world of euro. heritage

3. mestizos - mixed Euro. and nat. am. heritage

4. Mulattos - mixed Euro. and af.

5. zambos - mixed af. and native am.


Missionary work and witch trial in new world

Cath. - resist new science and enlightenment - strong belief driving was 2nd coming
--when Aztec and Inca empires fell - urgent to convert native am. to christianity
--nat. am. liked idea of good works as God-pleasing human efforts to gain salvation - also influenced growth in education
--prot. in New England - puritans

with trial - 1600s, eng. colonies - ppl. accused, tried and confined of witch craft, 86% women - accused swim or float if guilty...sink and drowned innocent
--began with nat. am. voodoo in salem



extension of centralizing state - state support for the export of manufacturers to Am. colonies (fr. and eng.) - with plantations
--Mercantilism is a national economic policy designed to maximize the trade of a nation and, historically, to maximize the accumulation of gold and silver
--belief in the benefits of profitable trading; commercialism
--the economic theory that trade generates wealth and is stimulated by the accumulation of profitable balances, which a government should encourage by means of protectionism

--wealth derived from mining of gold and silver and production of agriculture should be restricted to each country's market - as little as possible expended on imports from another country - wealth of state depends on having max. amt. of gold and silver - keep Econ. blocked from others
--create monopolies to ensure (ex. British goods only allowed travel on British ships)

--transatlantic trade 0 global economy is sum gain - if it helps you, it harms me - pie cannot be shared
--1st way to achieve is by gold and silver (used to pay armies)
2. need to run trade surpluses, export more than import


significance of Am. in changing europe's position in the world

1. acquire metals, which 2 big comp. (China and India) lacked

2. Access to warm weather and grew to be agrarian autonomy similar to Ch. and India
--small #s emigrated so pop. euro always less than nat. am. and af. slaves --> led to a privileged settler society with superior positions on social hierarchy
--cheap labor led to forced and racial prejudice

2 diff. ways of governing - 1) Spain and port. motivated centralized control, 2) Britain allowed self gov. to NE colonies


Africa and slave trade
--Songhai empire

Af. had to adopt their religious heritage to challenge of Euro. Christianity - euro. came late 15th century

Songhai Empire
--follow original (1st) Af. Empire (Mali empire) - eventually conquered and overcame Mali
--profit from trans-saharan trade and convert to Islam
--Islamic but religiously tolerant - no forced religion
--timbuktu manuscripts - wealth of learning
--Songhai emperors elevated by taxation of gold trade - trade salt and manuf. for gold and slaves
--quickly ended after little more than 1 century - invasion from Morocco -stop gold trade with Port.


port. expansion (and Ethiopia)

Port. had large focus on Indian spice trade - ater Atlantic slave trade
--reconquista and religious crusading - king searing for way to Ethiopia or India - vasco da Game circumnavigated southern tip of Africa and reached India - Port. develops Indian spice trad

--15th cent. - strong christian kingdom - arg., gold, ivory,, slaves - traditional Christian kingdom but faced pressure from expanding Muslim countries (Ottoman Empire)
--was supported by Port - became divided, weak kingdom (conflict of Euro. and Ottoman Empire)
--16th cent. 0 Holy War with Muslim Adal -Ethiopia would have been destroyed but Port. supported (Against Ottoman Muslim support from Yemen)
--some Port. stay in Ethiopia - many Jesuit missionaries but King expelled them


Household slavery

--Af. chiefs and Kings maintained large households - with admin., soldiers, farmers and craftsmen...many of whom were slaves acquired through rain and wars (or as punishment for breaking law)
--in Africa,# slaves inc. and wealth status inc.
--Port. made slave forts -- sold luxuries for luxuries (slaves)


Kingdom of Kongo

trade relations with Port. - capital M'banza grew to be as large as London, Rome, Moscow, Amsterdam - large palace pop. and many slaves
--kings converted to Christianity by Port. missionaries - sent members of ruling family to Port. for education - learn to read and write in Portuguese and wear Port. clothes
--result = Af. creole culture - mixed rel. with Catholicism
--Kongo sell 1000 slaves to Port. each year - more war with Port. for slaves
--Dutch also attacked Kongo but Port. rec. Brazil's help and won - Port. compromised on slave issue

--1400 - not muslim - extensive trading networks
--conversion by leites to Christianity in late 1400s
--Port. in Kongo - find active market for slaves
--sugarcane spreading - D for slaves inc. in Af. (based on an already established trade market that the Euro. find in Africa already)


Plantation slavery (chattel)

Econ. system using slave labor (sugarcane, tobacco, cotton) to grow cash crops
--about 12.5 million A. shipped and 12% died during travel
--largest human migration in world history
--almost half sent to Brazil - "color line" - blackness rep. slavery - racism
--harder life than indoors - violence on both parts - escaped slaves called "maroons"
--bc hard labor - ave. plantation slave live only 5-6 more years - made it more profitable to work slaves to death than to invest in slave family

chattel - an item of moveable personal property - slaves reduced from status of person to chattel, personal property to use and dispose of

--practice of looking at past through lens of present - bias - avoid in history


2 developments to mercantilist economies

1. GB and Fr. join African slave trade
2. D for molasses inc. - sugar, slaves, molasses and rum form triangular trade of Atlantic economy

--Indian ships with permission to attack (pirates) - penance riches by attacking and cutting off comp.

indentured laborers
--poor workers in Euro. - contract to work 3-7 years and rec. free pass across Atlantic to America


Fatal Triangle

worlds most lucrative Econ. triangle
Atlantic system:
--Euro. ships exchange goods for slaves in west Africa - then bring slaves to Am. to be exchanged for goods and taken back to Europe
--Britain established monopoly with high D goods in Am. only travel British ships
--common ex: eng. ship with rum sent to Af. and trade for slaves, slaves brought to Caribbean and trade for Molasses, Molasses brought back to Eng. and processed into rum

Brazil - largest slaves state in world - 2/3 pop. af. am.
--sugar empire - D sugar and slaves inc.

Atlantic slave trade - foundation of mass production of cash crops and commodities - foundation of racism and belief of inferiority based on color


Middle Passage

high profits, story to find way to pack MAX # slaves in ship
--mortality rate high so plan "tight packing" - deliberate over crowding with assumption that more captives survive with crowding that on a spacious ship of fewer captives but higher survival rate
--little food and highly unsanitary - dead and sic thrown overboard
--10-30% died


Culture and identity in Af. Diaspora (forced migration) - change in Af. from slave trade

adopt Af. society to W. Christianity and Port. culture - af. creole cultures (hybrid rel. customs)
--creole cultures - adapt music, lang., rel. and culture

Music - roots of most pop. music in Am. are Af.
--Practiced by Af. French speakers in Caribbean, Louisiana and Brazil
--mix Roman Cath. with Af. natural and ancestral spirit of Gods - see spiritual power in natural things and use images of objects to represent a person who's power want to control (voodoo dolls)
--rituals where priests can tune into spirits of natural world - rel. of slaves and their form of freedom and control when they had none



1500-1800 rise of Ottomans
-- (1453) led by Mehmet II "the conquerer" - one of the stirring events of world history
--Byzantines could not defend walls of city - Ottomans had superior strength and shot cannons at walls 0 went around the "Golden horn" (Weak area of city) and Ottoman solders assaulted walls with ladders
-killed the last Byzantine emperor in Constantinople (means "Istanbul" in Turkish)
---in celebration ordered the construction of TOPKAPI PALACE - and appointed new patriarch at head of eastern christians

Topkapi palace
--created after Ottoman defeated Constantinople - palace for sultans ("palace of the gun gate"
--Sultan lives and holy place for religion - build to show their success and power

siege of Constantinople - soldiers pulled boats on rollers and wheels over hillside - Sultan Mehmet II circumvented chain (in front of entrance to golden horn) - to speed up conquest and conquer


Sultan "Suleyman I" the magnificent

drove out Spanish from North America...where Spanish had conquered in reconquista
--big onion head in pictures - 10th and longest reigning sultan of Ottoman Empire from 1520 until death in 1566

finance major expansion of military and bureaucracy and farmed centralized state (to project power to subjects and Christian enemies)
--ranks 1. Muslims of Christian parentage, 2. Muslims of Islamic descent


Safavid empire

grew mid 1400s - NW Iran - believe Messiah would arrive and establish Muslim Apacalyptic realm before last judgment - realm would replace the "unjust" Sunni Ottoman Empire
--thought Messiah was a 14-year-old boy names Ismail
--practiced form of Islam called Shiism (diff. from Ottoman) dominant in Iran
--The Safavid dynasty was one of the most significant ruling dynasties of Iran, often considered the beginning of modern Iranian history


rise of Habsburgs

sometimes called "Holy Roman Empire of German nation"
--ruled parts of Italy, Austria and Germany
--Iberian Peninsula - Christian V won title of emperor from Pope and oversaw western Christianity - counterpart of Sultan Suleyman in struggle for dominance in Christian/muslim Europe
--Charles V wanted to prevent Ottoman expansion in mediterranean - but distracted by Port. reformation in Germ., revolts in Iberia and war with France
--france formed alliance with Ottomans when trying to force Habsburgs out of italy


Habsburg/Ottoman rivalry

--end of Charles V reign, only 2/8 Habsburg garrisons had survived ottoman
--struggle over Indian Ocean - after Vasco da game, Port. wanted to break into Muslim-dominated Indian Ocean trade - Ottoman blocked...both became weak and eventually neth. overtake both Port. and Ottoman Indian spice trade

Moriscos - North Americans and muslims under Spanish rule - church worried of Morisco revolt - wanted their expulsion


Centralizing state 2

create to finance military shift from firearms to cannons
--land grant system - Ottoman lords rec. land for service --- money economy and collect

--troops who rec. salary from central treasure - recruited from Christian pop. in Ottoman Empire
--practiced Devsirme - obligation of Christians to send boys (age 6-10) to soldier training
--come from Christian and Jewish community - forced to give up children, who convert to Islam and go to military training - these soldiers collect the taxes
--Meritocracy (smartest, strongest, get best jobs)


tax farming

gov. auction of right to collect taxes in a district
--the tax farmer advanced these taxes to treasury and retained commission
--giving profits from mineral production to state minus their commission


claims on west and war

west won war NOT bc of superiority of ideas/religion - but by its superiority in applying organized violence


dutch east India company (out of order sorry - goes with columbian exchange section)

spread risk to max profits - Big example of capitalism and MERCANTILISM
--trading monopoly
--dutch get nutmeg monopoly


earlier in af. slave trade
--our lady of Guadalupe

dark skinned version of virgin mary
--represents a god being aware of nat. am. just as he is of europeans
--construct Basilica in Mexico - not originally accepted by Euro. Cath.


class - what is was Islam?

christ is prophet, not savior
--evolved from Muhammad's original goal of creating a religion for Arab peoples

5 pillars: (From Keran - book)
testimony, prayer, charity, fasting, pilgrimage
--85% Sunni, 15% Shi'a
--split after Muhammad's death 632
--its influence spread through trading



About mediation, brotherhood, non-vioelnece, learning Keran -- writing God's word on heart - spiritual side and personal connection btw self and law
--not sect of Islam but belief inside
--men wearing dresses and whirl around room
--Muslims seek to find truth of divine love and knowledge through direct personal experience with God


Three main islamic empires

1. Ottoman Empire (greatest empire in Islam - established in Turkey)

2. Safavid Empire

Mughal Empire


Ottoman Empire (class notes)

main events
1. Battle of Kosovo 1300s - Sultan of Ottoman dies and prince of Serbia dies (leaders of both sides die) - almost everyone died, but Ottoman won and this began streak of victory for Ottoman - expansion

2. Constantinople 1400s - Capital of Byzantine empire (who was successor of Holy Roman Empire - Christian)
--biggest win for Ottoman
--changed history - end of Byzantine empire (and leftover Roman Empire)
--also change Ottoman bc adopt a lot of Byzantine ruling practices (untouchable sultan - like emperor)
--Ottoman seen less as a conqueror more of empire - establish gov. after this win
--high religious tolerance (especially to Christians and jews)
------While Jews were being expelled from Spain and Port. during reconquista - invited them to Ottoman with open arms...one 2 conditions - high taxes and provide in military


Siege of Vienna 1529

Hazburgs in Austria (Cath.) - saw growing Muslim empire (Ottoman) below them - fought not for conquer but religious control
--walls strong - Ottoman's attacked, but failed - didn't gain and euro. saved

1683 - revivalism - Ottoman attacked Vienna AGAIN - failed again and give up on Vienna
--Vienna marks end of expansion of Ottoman and begin contraction

Ottoman was decentralized - provinces govern themselves


Exam tips

1. know Ming dynasty comes before Ching Dynasty
2. know Scientific revolution builds on Renaissance
--know chronological order but not dates

par. - guess author, time period, context - know author's profession, continent, status


Akbar (1542-1605)

most innovative of Mughal rulers
--wanted to master all India by military means - strong warrier
--hated religious violence and wanted strong religious tolerance and unity among Mughal empire
--to make peace, married a Hindu princess
--one of his sons rebelled and attacked - made himself emperor

his grandson Shah Jahon followed rein - he created the Taj Mahal (most recognized symbol of India in world) - built as burial tomb when wife died in child birth - devoted to study of Quran and rule according to Islamic precepts


Aurabgzeb (1618-)

Shah Jahon's son - became last powerful Mughal ruler
--wanted unified Islamic nation - opposite of Akbar - not rel. tolerant
--rewarded those who converted to Islam with gifts and positions
--isolate others and demolish Hindo temples


British east India company

--Fr., Dutch and brush create monopolies over country's trade with certain region - act like independent states

British - acquire Bombay (Mumbai) from Port. - build a trading station called Calcutta - Britain dominates Bengal and most of N India


structure of Mughal Empire

autocratic centralism - power at center - diff. for mughal's centralized power bc nobles want to power themselves - favoritism...cannot advance politically without court's approval

In India, majority Hindu - tensions btwn Hindu and Muslim

gunpowder empires - so imp. they call Muslim empires Mughal, Ottoman and Safavid
--Mosques imp.


Ming Dynasty

Euro. intrusions give incentive to China and Japan to turn inward and stabilize and secure their country
(1368-98) - 1st followed dynastic pattern - recovering from Mongol remnant - rebuild from war, Black Death
--dec. price of land and inc. amt. of money in circulation
--columbian exchange intro. new food crops - caused China's pop. to more than double when Ming began
--rapid recovery - mercantilism - wanted to control imports and regulate exports - INC. demand for porcelain, tea, still, paper and cotton
--China becomes world's dominant economic engine
--Porcelain trade imp. and development of ceramics (blue and white color)
--consider chin. porcelain, "world's most highly developed tech." - Chinese monopoly
--weakened bc cont. need for Chin. forces in Kor. against Japanese forces

marked by high pt. as world tech. innovator - military superpower - cannons and handguns (too costly to continue to develop during Qing)
--centralized gov.


neo- confucianism

moral, ethical chin. Phil. influenced by traditional confucianism - big in Song and Ming dynasties - responds to Taoism and Buddhism


mandate of heaven

Chin. Phil. concept of only one ruler allowed to rule at time - good rulers rule with the mandate of heaven...unjust/bad rulers have mandate revoked


banner system

organizational system of Manchus for military and taxation purposes
--8 banners under which all military houses arranged and each divided into blocks of families to furnish units of 300 soldiers to Manchu gov.
--expanded under Qing Dynasty

--ethnic minority in China - Han were largest ethnic group
--Manchu "queue" hairstyle - all males req. on pain of death to adopt Manchu hairstyle of shaved forehead and long pigtail in back (called the "queue" - as sign of liberty - caused many revolts and bloody deaths by rebels during Qing


Qing Dynasty and Qianlong Emperor

kept centralized imperial system of Ming, bug added Grand advisor council - inner advisory group to emperor

Qianlong Emperor
--marked high point but also beg. of decline of Qing dynasty
--large army - stopped pushing ocean expeditions
--Port. cont. and entered Chin. waters for trade and sending Cath. missionaries - Ming at first refused entry of missionaries - but later, Jesuits earned respect by learning lang. and culture and holding math, science, astronomy and military expertise
--by end of his rule..china is most powerful nation in East Asia
--HUGE exports of porcelain from China - spend majority of silver from new world to acquire

civil service exam
--imperial China - Qing dynasty - recruit men based on merit, not family or political connection -- education very important


Canton trade

Atlantic trade with china inc. rapidly but euro. not fully included
--Canton system - all trade with euro. tightly controlled and conducted through single port of Canton - foreign merchants not allowed to reside within walled city - southern post
--import restrictions with foreigners
--only small #s allowed
--British cash India company dominated Canton trade factories


Lijia system

all households placed officially and designated villages for tax purposes
--10 households = one "Jia"
--100 households = one "Li"
--intended for efficient ax collection and record system - replaced by "Baejia system" - representatives


Problems in China

1. increasing pop.
2. economic stress
3. pressures on women lifestyle - educated for marriage and subordinate to men

foot binding - bind feet to display wealthy status - did not need feet to work - symbol of beauty in Chin. culture - less independent and more controlled


Kangxi emperor

4th emperor of Qing dynasty - 1st born on Chin. soil south of Shanghai near Beijing
--long lasting Qing dynasty
--1st IMPORTANT Qing ruler - longest reigning emperor in Chinese history
--sacred edict of Kangxi - obedience, hierarchy
--Qing dynasty run by small group of Manchu's (hairstyle)


class - trade in China (Ming)

luxury goods - Euro. willing to pay high to purchase
--trading is least respectable profession (believed for Barbarians or heathens)
--China is afraid of North (Mongol) - threat to Ming
--rebuild Great Wall - large deficits due to military spending
--16th cent. - fan of Ming - culture of decadence (aloof from common people) - downside of untouchable/invincible ideology


Tokugawa Leyasu

Years after Japan cont. to struggle to achieve unification - civil war for a century
--Tokugawa - began with warfare and social disorder from Hideyoshi era - also worse bc intrusion of European missionaries
--formed Bakafu gov.
--passed down to his son - 1st hereditary succession in Japan since 12th century



also called Shogunate - last feudal Jap. military gov. - head of gov. was shogun and part of Tokugawa clan
--was responsible only for warfare and policing - subordinate to imperial court
--began process of centralization and stabilization

"tent" gov.
--headquarters in capital (Tokyo) to ensure lyalyu - all daimyo would live in capital in alternate years and return home during off years - their families were permanent hostages to capital


Japanese warfare - daimyo and samurai

opposite of China where low position given to military - in Japan...daimyo and samurai had absolute power of life and death over commoners
--"gave up gun" - gov. took away weapons from people
--NO civil service exam (diff. than China) - more decentralized than China, no large bureacracy

--position evolved with rate of official and neo-confucianist - not prosperous (almost poverty)
--military soldiers in Japan

--in feudal Japan - one of the Great Lords of the shot gun



Tokugawa - ordered all missionaries to leave
--only Dutch, Koreans and China allowed to stay - Japanese subjects also forbidden to leave

--Jap. Christian converts rebelled - killed rebels in ring of fire...crucified missionaries...forced to "trample the crucifix"
--1000s practiced in secret
--Virgin Mary disguised as the Buddhist Bodnisattva Kannon - worship like Virgin Mary (worship Buddhist Mary in hiding or executed)


Dutch learning

National learning

dutch forced to lived on tiny island - made yearly reports on world events to Jap. - found small readership among educated Japanese - dutch (Also Kor. and Chin.) formed Japanese view of outside world for 2 centuries (bc seclusion laws)
--specifically in tech. and medicine of western world

Kokugaku - national learning
--17/18th century - emphasized Jap. classical studies - influenced by neo-confucianism - dressed importance of Chinese classical culture
--also attempted to purge of all foreign influences (Buddhism and Confucianism)


Infanticide and famine in Japan

18th century - pop. continue to increase and rural impoverishment
--efforts to keep families small clads to infanticide - famines erupt and make problems worse


Japanese theater and art

--Monochrome - single color painting
--bunraku - pupper theater - big facial expressions - most popular was kabuki - lots of makeup
--haiku - poetry - Basho was famous poet

merchant class becomes most wealthy - thinks Japan should become like Europe - especially ENGLAND - hate China


1. Toyotomi Hideyoshi

launches invasion of Korea to weaken Ming dynasty in 1500s - focus on unification but struggle with civil war
--his son Tokugawa Leyasu takes power (sometimes called Edo era - period of peace)
--moves capital from Kyoto to today's Tokyo`
--presnets himself as emperor's mobile deputy
--adopts Confucianism (more luxurious - China is not as simple) - also Buddhism (elegant simplicity - even for elite''
--religious pluralism - see Buddhist and Confucianist temples


what is history?

--the past
--its open to interpretation
--its interpretive, but not all interpretations are equal

"history is the never ending process whereby people seek to understand the past and its many meanings...we all interpret and narrate the past...which is to say we all participate in making history"


Why Europe's dominance from 1500 onward??

--fierce competition
--geography - Jared Diamond's thesis
--God's plan


effects of European presence in Africa (1450-1800s)

--gender imbalance - polygama reinforced
--political and social destabilization
--very little actual conquest