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New sciences, Rene Descartes and John Locke

New Intellectual religious and political thinking

Rene Descartes
--French - 2 years in nets. teaching New Sciences - main idea that geometry through algebra converted to analytical geometry
--Jefferson Bible
--"I think therefore I am" - "who put that thought in my head?" God did...he inspires us and expect Sus to use our own reason - will not guide every step

John Locke
--and Hobbes accepted Descartes ideas - made body reality and mind a dependent function - focused on bodily passions...not reason
--society functions best with religious tolerance - many religions



European intellectual movement (1700-1800) growing out of NEW SCIENCES and based largely on Descartes's concept of reality consisting of the two separate substances of matter and mind
--inspired the American, French and Haitian revolutions
--many "progressives" In period opposed tradition
--shift away from tradition towards individualism - shift from religion to reason - more forward looking than past tradition
-challenging tradition - applying scientific approach to study of society


Denis Diderot

idea to bring ALL knowledge together in an alphabetical encyclopedia appeared first in England in 1728
--Denis edited - Cath. church and French crown banned the project but last vol. published in 1772

mandatory elementary education
Salan in Moscow - discussion of knowledge - deeper than Renaissance


Jean-Jacques Rousseau

--firm believer in religious morality of the masses
--"social contract" - argued that humans had suffered a steady decline from their "natural" state since civilization imposed its arbitrary authority
--lost natural state of freedom and equality
--in favor of direct democracy (little faith in pop. sovereignty and elections)


Immanuel Kant

1724-1804 - philosopher who believed in progress
--wrote "perpetual peace" - jumped of Descartes ideas
--argued reason contradicted experience
--sought to build morality on reason
--based on "Categorical imperative" - act that the principle of your action can be a principle for anyone's action -- human rights


Adam Smith

Scottish economist - CAPITALISM - appalled nu inefficient administration of finances, taxes and trade (oppose mercantilism)
--adopt policy of "laissez-faire" - dec. tax and dec. gov.
involvement (gov. leave alone)
--if market left alone...it would regulate itself through forces of supply and demand - efficiency guided by an "invisible hand"
---smith is founding father of modern economics

ALSO IMPORTANT - David Ricardo
--more efficient with open trade - specialization makes more effective and inc. profits - specialize where your skills are and trade for the rest

economic pie - don't fight about who gets which slice...should work together and make entire pie bigger (not restricted to size)


Composers and poets during enlightenment

Wolfgang Mozart - Composer - "Theo magic flute"

Johann Wolfgang con Goethe - poems, novels, plays



Voltaire (real name François-Marie Arouet) (1694 - 1778) was a French philosopher and writer of the Age of Enlightenment. His intelligence, wit and style made him one of France's greatest writers and philosophers, despite the controversy he attracted
--attacks on the established Catholic Church and Christianity as a whole
--advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state

tolerance - agrees with Locke - persecution goes against bible - not consistent with your own moral philosophy - we are brothers



French lawyer, man of letters, and political philosopher who lived during the Age of Enlightenment
--wrote that French society was divided into the 'trias politica': the monarchy, the aristocracy and the commons
--two types of government existed: the sovereign and the administrative
--administrative powers were divided into the executive, the judicial and the legislative
separate and kept each other in check to prevent any branch from becoming too powerful
--He believed that uniting these powers, as in the monarchy of Louis XIV, would lead to despotism


Joseph II

--Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790
--Austria - tries to rule with enlightened thinking - abolish serfdom, religious tolerance - gets rid of death sentence
--still absolute monarch (hereditary) but puts new ideas into practice



Religion accepted by most of enlightenment philosophers
--God is the watchmaker - he creates it, winds it and sets in motion..then lets it be - lets us live on our own
--Jefferson bible - new gospels - w/o Christ's miracles - just Christ as a moral teacher - thought his followers created the stories


gov. in enlightenment

John Locke - natural rights

Montesquieu - separation of powers

Rousseau - popular sovereignty - says monarch is not bad...but should be elected - not hereditary

Cesare Beccaria - on crimes and punishments (book)
--stop torture - trial - new concepts of justice


Captain Cook

Brings back Amor to show a good man, uninfluenced by European customs

System Natural
--defines racism - racism justified by science - hierarchy


Carl Linnaeus

Swedish naturalist and explorer who was the first to frame principles for defining natural genera and species of organisms and to create a uniform system for naming them (binomial nomenclature)


Factors leading to Am. Fr. Haitian revolutions

One factor leading was concept of Monarchical rule by divine right and intro. pop. sovereignty as new justification for political power
--also industrial rev. - beg. in ENGLAND bc steam-driven machine goods introduced - new scientific industrial perspective on experimentation, political social and tech. progress. social mobility and secularism replaced hierarchy, divinely ordained law and patriarchy

Enlightenment inspired revolutions - no monarchy, humanism, anti-slavery - fwd. progress

1st America, 2nd French, 3rd Haitian

embraced new sciences, philosophy, romanticism, realism


Glorious revolution

Outcome 1688 eng. - 1st time in Europe, traditional divine rights of monarch questioned
--Am. and Fr. rev. both consequences of seven years war - which left Britain and Fr. in large debt - pay back with taxes - unequal taxation led to revolt


King Louis XVI

king at time - absolute monarch
--Fr. pop increase, food shortage, INFLATION
--King was monarch but shared power with ruling class of aristocrats and wealthy people
--calls estates general - has rep. from each of 3 estates - wants all estates to pay taxes - unfunded wars


Estates general

King held elections for a general assembly to meet in Versailles - voters met across Fr. according to their estate as
1. Clergy
2. aristocrats
3. commoners (and peasants)


Three stages of French revolution - pt. 1

1. Constitutional monarchy
--began with near anarchy 1789 - peasants chased aristocratic and common landlords from their estates
--Oct. 1000s of working women marched from Paris to Versailles and forced king to move to Paris
--also subjected Cath. church to French civil law - established constitutional monarchy and issued laws ending unequal taxes of Old Regime


pt. 2 fr. revolution

2. Radical republicanism
--beg. as rec. unable to establish a stable constitutional regime
--king tried to flee with Austrian wife, Marie Antoinette - start war with Austria and Prussia
--Assembly, National convention to draw up constitution
--republicans executed royal couple and create conscript army
--executed 30,000 real and suspected reactionaries during REIGN OF TERROR


pt. 3 fr. rec.

3. Military consolidation
--Reign of terror -- replace committee of public safety - new constitution by the Directory

Napoleon Bonaparte
--commander - major victories against Austrians in Northern Italy and invaded Egypt
--went back to France to over throw the Directory - ended Revolution
--he restored stability in France
--guillotine - 1000s executions in France during reign of terror

Napoleon civil codes
--reforms of France legal system - equality of all MALE citizens before law - goal: enlightenment influenced, newly aristocratic European empire
--crowned himself emperor of France and began conquest of Europe - 1810 France dominated most of Europe
--failure of Russian campaign - began to fall
--Britain, Austria, Prussia and Russia align and restore Europe


CLASS causes of Fr. rev.

1. enlightenment
--creating a better future - rid of absolutism - focused on liberty, equality, reason

2. Debt crisis - from 7 years war

3. social structure
--1st estate: clergy (free from taxes and hold all wealth)
2nd: aristocracy
3rd: commoners (bear all taxes)

4. poor harvests


4 Stages of French Rev.

1. National Assembly
--Storming the Bastille - a state prison on the east side of Paris, known as the Bastille, was attacked by an angry and aggressive mob. The prison had become a symbol of the monarchy's dictatorial rule, and the event became one of the defining moments in the Revolution that followed
--declaration of the rights of man/women (ppl are sovereign...not king) - calls for constitution and Louis resists
--equality - all equal under law...abolish estate structure
--taking the civil oath

2. The Convention
--arrest of king at Varennes
--Siege of Lille by Austria
--execution of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette
--execution of Robespierre and Olympe de Gouges
REIGN OF TERROR - let by Maximilian Robespierre - anyone suspected of treason can be quickly arrested, tried and killed in name of revolution

3. The Directory
--French Revolutionary government set up by the Constitution of the Year III, which lasted four year

4. The Napoleonic Era
--battle of Borodino - During Napolean conquest for Russia - The fighting involved around 250,000 troops and left at least 70,000 casualties, making Borodino the deadliest day of the Napoleonic Wars



a lower-class Parisian republican in the French Revolution
--an extreme republican or revolutionary
--("without knee breeches"), in the French Revolution, a label for the more militant supporters of that movement
--leaders of the common people, but during the Reign of Terror public functionaries and educated men also adopted the label to demonstrate their patriotism



Olympe de Gouges

French playwright and political activist whose feminist and abolitionist writings reached a large audience. She began her career as a playwright in the early 1780s
--executed in the convention era of Fr. revolution by guillotine
--wrote declaration of rights of women


Johann Gottfried Herder

shared culture in Germ. and on centralized state - at college, Herder became familiar with pietism (Lutheran version of medieval Cath.)
--wrote to diffuse cultural heritage into ideology of Germanness combined with enlightenment
--ethnic version of enlightenment - to adopt Fr. nationalism
--but before unification could occur, Napolean ended Fr. rev. an declared himself emperor - conquered Prussia and Austria
--he argued patriotic passions for liberation from French rule and hopes for unified Germany under a constitutional gov.
--however instead, bc. Napoleon failed...opened for to restore monarchies



patterns of constitutionalism and ethnolinguistic nationalism
--nationalism wanting independence or fighting to gain it from other empires

aims of nationalism
1. INTERNAL reform of nation-state
--sovereignty to the people
--cultivation sense of unity and equality
2. CREATION of a new-nationstate


Italy at time - real politik

under foreign domination by Austrian Habsburgs and others
--later pursued "Real politik" - exploitation of political opposition
--oppressed countries and became ethnic nation states of Italy and Germany
--italy allied with France and beat Austria - became unified
--King and Prime minister tapped into a rising ethnic nationalism in Italy to bring about unification


Otto von Bismarck

In Prussia - no sympathy for constitutionalism - knew Prussia must progress from talk of unification to military action - Brought on war with france
--he was nicknames the "Iron Chancellor" - created his own version of "Real politik" - to combine diplomacy with war in order to achieve unification in Germany
--elevated new state to status of empire


Irish nationalism

--based on ethnic and religious traditions - appeared after Great Famine of 1845 - rural production and land issues - D for home rule and independence
--Protestant landlord class controlled land farmed by Catholic tenant farmers
--low prices for crops and high rent = land war - led to local gov. for Irish and land reform



intellectual and artistic movement that emphasized the power of creative genius over matter and sought the sublime in nature - humans were free to make themselves (Phil., composers, writers, painters)
--mind was entirely independent - emphasized individual creativity
--led to realism
--music became medium for expression creative genius


Ludwig Van Beethoven

German - pioneered new genre of program music - sympathy - emphasize passion, emotional intensity and freedom



middle 1800s - belief that material reality exists independently of the ppl who observe it
--middle classes - rise and industrialism

enlightenment ideas of rec. - provided ideological means of achieving liberation from foreign rule
--France: constitutional nationalism
--Germany: linguistic nationalism



result of Am. and French revolutions - overthrow absolute rule - replace loyalty of subjects to monarch and approach free and equal citizenship
--freedom, equality, elections, constitution, rep. assembly


country vs. state

--a self-governing geographical entity - a place

---the institution that holds the monopoly of legitimate violence over a given territory and delivers a range of goods and services to the population


nation and nation-state

--an imagined political community that has or desires politicly sovereignty and that shares some combination of: lang., culture, sense of equality, vision of past and vision for future

--a country in which the state represents one nation and gains its legitimacy from that nation



a state structure in which the ruling institution is distinct in some way from the periphery (those rule) and the relationship btw the two is defined inequitably - inequitable relationships may also define linguistic, religious or class diff. in society


Origins of Romanticism

--reaction against industrial revolution
--reaction against the scientification of nature
--spurred by idea of popular sovereignty - reaction against aristocratic cultural norms
--intertwined with nationalism


Britain and industrial rev.

agrarian model was changing to society based on machine-made goods, factories, work hours and labor - dominated by capitalism
--led to innovations in transportation, communication and weaponry

--Britain - ind. rec. originiated in Britain in 18th century
--spread to Europe and N. Am. 19th century
--change from manual labor ad natural power to mechanical power and machine production
--INC product of goods, new modes of transportation and new Econ. policies and business procedures

---associated with massive urbanization and wealth
--by 1900, ppl in W Euro. and N. Am were wealthier on ave. than neon else
--W Euro. nations, especially Britain used economic power to inc. GLOBAL DOMINIONS


Why Britain?

European and Britain spec. exp. prosperous and independent middle class and an early scientific revolution

1. Brit. benefited from coal and iron ore reserves, oversea colonies and global trading networks - foundation for commercial expansion

2. thriving merchant class supported legislation and promoted economic development

3. flourishing banking system - provide funds to entrepreneurs

British pop. doubled - exchange btw scientists, inventors, experimenters, mechanics - explosion of tech. innovation in Brit.
--steam engine, shuttle,


factory system

INC. dependence on machines - running water to provide energy
--inc. D for workers - move to urban cities
--application of machines led to British rule n developing intercontinental trade and commerce (before Ch. and India dominated)
--also benefit from SLAVE LABOR - kept commodity prices low (cotton) - INC D and production and DEC prices
--railroad - INC production and transportation - raw materials


2nd Industrial revolution

also change in "Steam" turn to coal
--high tech. innovations altered course of ind. rev. and world history
--most significant: steel, electricity, and chemicals
--STEEL (instead of iron) - new tech. product INC # and DEC price - many in Germany - steel higher and more durable - railroads and buildings

--CHEMICALS - cheap paper, slk. dye, dynamite, plastic - improve health (hygiene rev.)

--ELECTRICITY - generating power plants - automobile, airship (wright brothers)

communication - telephone radio, telegraph

weapons - machine gun


social and economic impact of industrialism

urbanization - leave rural areas for cities - pop. explosion - # jobs inc. - second rev. inc. medicine and sanitation - declining mortality rate

19th century migration
--overseas emigration of Euro. desire to escape poverty of underdeveloped regions ini euro. for better opp. in America
--easier bc adv. in transportation


changing social ranks and status

BOURGEOSIE - social class the owns and controls means of production (upper art of middle class) - status and power now not determined by birth or privilege but by working class - social standing based on occupation and income

1. upper class - "old $" joined by new urban elites (rich factory owners, bankers, merchants) 5% pop.

2. middle class - 15% pop. - education. luxury goods - divided into two groups:
---prof. lawyers and physicians, gov. officials
--small us. Owens and skilled factory workers

3. working class
--divisions btw skilled and unskilled workers



19th century Britain - group of workers who fiercely opposed the application of machines in textile industry
--term "luddite" refers to those who oppose tech. of any kind
--original said tech DEC. wages and treated livelihoods
--composed of skilled artisans in knitting/ others

--violently broke into homes and smashed textile machinery
--Parliament passed Frame Breaking Act: punishable by death - many Luddites tried and executed
--movement showed inequalities in early industrialism - led to INC. working conditions


why Eng. first class

--more freedom of trade - no internal trade tariffs, ports, roads, canals
--banks, insurance developed
--patent law 1624
--pop. boom - cheap labor
--abundant natural resources - coal, iron, cotton from colonies
--stable gov. and peace
-large markets by colonial empire


2nd industrial rev.

new materials and tech.
--steel and rubber
--chem. oil and pharmaceuticals
--new forms of trans. - auto., bikes, trolleys

expanded economy of Am. and Germany (!st focus on Britain) - INC. trans. communication and sanitation
--world Econ. INC, industry and commerce - steam engine run ships and faster expansion

during ind. rev. - capitalist middle class and working class enriched
--steam engine = start factory system


after Nap. defeat...

1812 in Russia defeated
--monarchies and aristocracies reappear
--goal to return to absolutism, repression and political manipulation to keep middle class from political participation


Congress of Vienna

Euro. leaders in 1815 at Vienna after Nap. fall to restore order to war-torn continent
--driving principle was monarchical conservatism - articulated mainly by PRINCE KLEMENS VON METTEMICH - Austria's prime minister
---he was opponent of constitutionalism - wanted to reinstate kings and emperors by divine right

2 principles by prince
--legitimacy - recognized exclusive monarchical rule in euro.and reestablish Fr. boundaries
--balance of power - prevent any one state from rising to dominance over another

members agree to meet regularly called "the concert" t ensure peace in Euro.


France after Napoleon

replace Louis XIV with Louis XVII - then Charles X - restore aristocracy and crowns tied to Cath. church
--repubicans voted and overthrew King, but kept monarchy - income gaps in middle class diff. working conditions


revolts in 1848

cities in Euro. and 3 Irish countries
--republicans in Germ. met to establish new unified state and affected gov.
--against rep. resistance, delegates chose a Prussian king
--by end of 19th cent. - conditions in factories INC and wages INC for workers

result of 2nd ind. rev. was more jobs for women - 1/3 of workers
==investions of typewriter, phone, calc. machines - # jobs for women


Emmeline Pankhurst and Mary Woolstonecraft

most radical of British Political feminists - with her daughters formed the women's social and political union in 1903 - civil disobedience -draw attention

suffragettes.- women who organized to D the right to vote - New Zealand was first to self-gov. and grant women suffrage (Emily Davidson)

Mary Wollstonecraft, married name Mary Wollstonecraft Godwin, (born April 27, 1759, London, England—died September 10, 1797, London), English writer and passionate advocate of educational and social equality for women

19th amendment - woman right to vote


Conservatism in Europe

Conservatives wanted to restore and preserve traditional way of life and politics
--monarchy (absolute or constitutional)
--traditional econ. relations
--traditional social relations
--law and order


19th century liberalism in Europe

John Stuart Mill

political and legal reforms
--constitutions and Parliaments
--rule of law - all equal before the law
--meritocracy rather than aristocracy

civil liberties
--separation of church and state
--universal education

free-market economics
--property rights, no constrains on labor market

civil society


Charles Fourier

French philosopher, influential early socialist thinker, and one of the founders of utopian socialism

Advocated founding a self-sustaining model communities in which jobs given according to abilities and interest
--those doing most dangerous and unattractive jobs earning highest wages

reform for working conditions and private property should be more equally distributed


Robert Owen

factory owner N. of England - established model community in Scotland called New Lanark
--more humane living and working conditions - result INC profits
--campaigned for formation of workers unions then left to America - in Indiana set up model socialist community called New Harmony



reform movement in Britain - political reform focus
-formed by London working Men's association
--millions of workers ginned petitions for Parliament - all rejected


Karl Marx

most famous social reformer
--PHD Phil. - visited Manchester and observed miserable lives of factory workers and inequities of industrialism
--theory of "scientific socialism" - inspired by CLASS STRUGGLES
--inspired by German Hegel - made concept based on economic class struggle called DIALECTICAL MATERIALISM
--Saw rev. for ind. working class to topple capitalist order - joined communist party in London and wrote COMMUNIST MANIFESTO with Frederich Engels - propaganda to rally working class
--want to encourage them to rise up and overthrow capitalist factory owners, Bourgeoisie


Factory act and saddler report

Sadler report - 1832 - parliament points out abuses in child labor

factory act
--sets a min. age of 9 for child employees and limited workday to 8 hours for children btw 9-13 and 12 hrs. for age 13-18


Peterloo Massacre

St Peter's Field, Manchester, England, on 16 August 1819, when cavalry charged into a crowd of 60,000–80,000 who had gathered to demand the reform of parliamentary representation
--meeting of peaceful campaigners for parliamentary reform was broken up by the Manchester Yeomanry, a local force of volunteer soldiers. Between 10 and 20 people were killed and hundreds more injured


Socialism vs. communism

--political and economic theory of social organization that advocates that the means of production, distribution, and exchange should be owned or regulated by the community as a whole
--transitional social state between the overthrow of capitalism and the realization of communism

--a political theory derived from Karl Marx, advocating class war and leading to a society in which all property is publicly owned and each person works and is paid according to their abilities and needs



--btwn capitalism and communism
--"from each according to his ability, to each according to his LABOR"
--dictatorship of proletariat
--mo more class-based exploitation
---STATE controls the commanding heights of Economy
--persistence of bourgeois laws and values, along with some private property



--follows socialism and is last stage of human social development
--"from each according to his ability. to each according to his NEED"
--state has withered away - no countries
--Bourgeois values (greed, pride) have been stamped out


Albert Einstein

theory of relativity
--destroyed newton's notion of mechanical universe - he argues there are no absolutes of time, space and motion - these are relative to each other and depend on position of observer
--taught mater and energy are equivalent - means all amt. of matter ca be massive amts. of atom's energy


Charles Darwin

modern evolution
--species evolve from lower to higher forms
--"Natural selection".- those with tools to survive in their env. would win out and others extinct - how characteristics passed down
--no intelligence or plan in env. - random change with organisms trying to survive and reproduce


Sigmund Freud

best known of early physocholigists (Austrian)
--specialized in treating "hysteria" - with "psychoanalysis"
--wrote "the interpretations of dreams" - connected dreams with unconscious in humans - irrational creatures driven by subconscious urges


Scientific industrial

all discoveries - evolution, physics, medicine, phsych. - part of scientific-industrial society and provoked deep Phil. and religious confusion

before in enlightenment era: Atheism HUGE


Friedriche Nietzsche

German Phil.--did not like pop. idea the scientific, rational thought is the best path toward intellectualtruth
--thought rational thought will not improve individual. of welfare of mankind
""will to power" - follow will and lead others to truth
--decalred "God is dead" - said Christianity was a "slave morality"


Modern Art

artistic expression - variety of movements - middle class

impressionists - name from Claude Monet's "Impression, sunrise" - follows by...

post-impressionism - used CUBSM - Pablo Picasso. -painted "Les Demoiselles d' Augrion" (often considered first of Cubist paintings) - interest in Af. masks


Arnold Schoenberg

1911 austrian composer - published - "theory of Harmony" announcing new style of music
--feat. themes reflecting Freudian theories of unconscious along with noises of engines, machines, and urban life - rejected western musical convetions

2 types of music:
1. primitivism - abandon formal structure to express personal musical perceptions
--new appreciation of non-western art - applied abstraction in to existing orientalist

2. modernism - cultural developments evolving in other fields during 19th and early 20th century

surrealism, cubism, dadaism, expressionism (Art)



late 19th/20th century
--aims to be elitist/more democratic than even Romanticism
--replaced certainties of enlightenment with unsettledness of new time
--explored power of irrational

modernism in European culture:
--impressionism - new tech., focus on feelings on emotions, dominance of light and color of symmetry and perspective
--morphs into post-impressionism - more abstract


Russian Empire

Major trend of Alexander III and Nicholas II
--cont. insistence on autocracy
--suppression of socialism


No, Muhammad Ali

army reform
--agricultural reform - resented by peasants


Tanzimat reforms

--guarantees natural rights: life, honor, property
--reformed tax collecting
--new legal codes and courts: currency and postal system
--Euro. advisers help create a modern army
--abolition of slavery
--schools began to teach euro. lang. and sciences
--emphasis on indusrialization
--land reform
--resistance by landowners, merchants and clerics


Salafism/ Wahhabism

founded by Mohammad Ibn And al-wahab
--concerned with purifying (Sunni) Islam
--oneness of God - strict interpretation of scripture
--connection with Saud family


Opium wars:

--Treaty of Nanjing (1842) and Treaty of Bogue (43)
----Hong Kong to Brit. - large indemnity for war
--five "Treaty" ports opened to foreign trade and settlement (Canton used to be only open to trade)
--China limited to 5% tariffs on external trade
--extraterritoriality for Euro. resients - most favored nation status

Treat of Tientsin (Tianjin) 1860
--additional 10 ports opened
--Euro. diplomats in Beijing
--opium trade legalized
--Kowloon ceded to UK
--travel of Christian missionaries legalized
--large war indemnity - debt



family owned conflomerates
--partially controlled by state
--instrumental in Jap. industrialization