FINAL EXAM - All Conditions of the Respiratory System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in FINAL EXAM - All Conditions of the Respiratory System Deck (224)
1

nasal cavity Fn

sticky mucous membrane lining the nasal cavity traps dust particles, and tiny hairs called cilia help move them to the nose to be sneezed or blown out

2

sinuses Fn

these air-filled spaces along side the nose help make the skull lighter

3

pharynx fn

both food and air pass through the pharynx before reaching their appropriate destinations. the pharynx also plays a role in speech.

4

larynx

essential to human speech

5

traches fn

located just below the larynx, the trachea is the main airway to the lungs.

6

lungs Fn

together the lungs form on of the body's largest organs. they're responsible for providing oxygen to capillaries and exhaling co2

7

bronchi fn

for the trachea into each lung and create the network of intricate passages that supply the lungs with air

8

diaphragm fn

the diaphragm is the main respiratory muscle that contracts and relaxes to allow air into the lungs

9

normal Respiratory rate (RR)

12-15 minute

10

Heart Rate (P) (4)1. rate2. feel for how long3. if irregular count for how long4. if it's low ask client what?

1. 60-1002. feel for 15sec. x43. if irregular count for 1 min. 4. low rate - ask if client feels light headed

11

Metabolic Equivalent of task (MET)

amount of energy used by the body to perform a physical activity or daily task

12

at rest what is the average oxygen consumption MET?

1 MET

13

With more activity MET values

increase

14

tachycardia(3)1. what is the heart rate2. what is it not always?3. what do you ask the client?

1. heart rate > 100 bpm2. not always pathological (side effect)3. Ask if they're light headed/ dizzy and if they sit down does it go away

15

tachypnea (2)1. what is the RR2. What is a normal RR

respiratory rate > 20/minutenormal rate is 8-12/minute

16

wheeze

airway is constrictedcontinuous, coarse, whistling sound produced in the airways during breathing

17

If there is no sound when listening to lungs it means

air is not moving around; not good

18

rales

sounds like bubble wrap; avioli popping due to filled with secretions; clicking, rattling, or crackling noises that may be made by one or both lungs during inalation

19

Rhonchi

wheezing then cough and sound is gone; due to mucous moving around.coarse rattling sound somewhat like snoring, usually caused by secretion in bronchial airways

20

Signs of CAP (3)

1. tachycardia/tachypnea2. dullness to percussion with consolidation/effusion3. exam alone cannot confirm/exclude diagnosis

21

Symptoms of CAP (5)

1. altered breath sounds/rales2. rigor/sweats3. fever/hypothermia4. dyspnea5. new cough (+/- sputum)

22

rigor

shaking chills

23

CAP prognosis

can take weeks to return to baseline functioning

24

Signs of Nosocomial pneumonia (HCAP) (2)

1. altered breath sounds/rales2. dullness to percussion with effusion

25

Symptoms of HCAP (4)

1. fever/hypothermia2. rigor/sweats3. dyspnea4. new cough (+/- sputum)

26

OT intervention recommendations (4)

1. encourage coughing2. sitting/walking is good and can speed recovery3. walking prevents blood clots4. recovery can take several weeks

27

Atropy

tendency to be hypoallergic is the strongest identifiable factor

28

Atopic "triad" (3)

1. wheeze2. eczema3. seasonal rhinitis

29

Asthma's impact on structure of the respiratory system (4)

1. narrowed airway (limited airflow)2. tightened muscles- constrict airway3. inflamed/thickened airway wall 4. mucus

30

Asthma symptoms (5)

1. breathlessness2. cough3. wheeze prolonged expiration4. episodic/chronic symptoms of airway obstruction5. 1/3 of children have no wheeze

31

asthma general management (4)

1. remove irritants2. peak flow measurements3. desensitization4. oxygen

32

Asthma pharmacological management (3)

1. quick relief meds (beta 2 agonists - albuterol)2. long term control - steroid3. medication side effects-Tachycardia or increased RR

33

asthma OT activity recommendation (3)

1. avoid triggers such as cold air2. control symptoms first before activity3. activities with short bursts are better tolerated to build up conditioning

34

emphysema clinical findings (8)

1. exertional dyspnea (activity)2. cough is rare3. quiet lungs4. no peripheral edema5. thin; recent weight loss6. barrel chest7. pursed lips breathing8. hyperventilation

35

Emphysema CXR (5)

1. decreased lung markings at apices2. flattened diaphragms3. hyperinflation4. parenchymal bullae and blebs - small thin appearing heart

36

bronchitis clinical findings (5)

1. mild dyspnea2. chronic productive cough3. noisy lungs; rhonchi and wheeze4. peripheral edema5. overweight and cyanotic

37

bronchitis CXR (2)

1. increased interstitial markings at bases2. diaphragms not flattened

38

treatment options for COPD - increase in severity as you go down the list (7)

1. no cure; once developed never goes away2. self-management education and smoking cessation3. bronchodilators4. inhaled corticosteroids5. pulmonary rehabilitation6. oxygen7. surgery

39

vital signs (7)

1. temperature - T2. pulse - P3. respirations - R4. blood pressure - BP5. height - Ht6. weight - Wt7. pain

40

Alveoli

small air sacs that perform gas exchange

41

epiglottis

protects the lungs from foreign objects by covering the trachea during swallowing

42

tachycardia - define

heart is pumping too quickly or thready; impacts circulation

43

Due to the close relationship between the lungs and the heart; conditions that

impact one organ can cause impairment in the other

44

HTN

increase in the amount of force that is pushing against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps blood

45

HTN is usually

asymptomatic; can go years unnoticed and untreated; but still causing damage to the heart, kidneys, and other body structures

46

Prehypertensive is considered between what 2 numbers?

120/80 and 139/89

47

HTN Preventions include (2)

1. regular exercise2. eating a healthy diet

48

Treatment of HTN

1. follow physician recommended health care plan2. adhering to exercise and healthy eating plans3. monitoring BP levels4. taking medications

49

atherosclerosis

condition where plaque made of cholesterol, fat, calcium, and other substances sticks to the inner lining of arteries; over time hardening and narrowing the opening of blood vessels, thus reducing the rate of oxygenated blood being delivered.

50

Causes of CAD(6)

smokingobesitydiabeteshigh cholesterolgeneticsage

51

Treatment of CAD

1. healthy lifestyle choices2. medications3. surgical procedures

52

Surgical procedures for CAD include

1. angioplasty 2. CABG3. Carotid endartrerectomy

53

Angioplasty

small mesh tube is inserted into the coronary artery to widen the opening, thus increasing the blood flow

54

CABG

artery or veins are harvested from the leg usually and then surgically attached to bypass the blocked arteries near the heart

55

Carotid Endarterectomy

surgery where the carotid artery in the neck is opened in order to remove some of the plaque that has formed thus allowing better blood flow to the brain

56

pneumonia

inflammation of the lung tissue caused by infection, usually from bacterial, viral, or fungal sources

57

Community-acquired pneumonia

exposure to the bacteria or virus in the community

58

Those at risk for hospital-acquired pneumonia (3)

1. post surgery (especially abdominal or chest surgery)2. patients in intensive care unit3. patients with weakened immune system

59

Those at risk for aspiration pneumonia are

1. TBI or CVA pts. that have impacted the swallowing sequence or gag reflexes2. when food or foreign substance enters the lungs and causes an infection

60

Early signs and symptoms of pneumonia are often confused with the

flu

61

Symptoms for pneumonia include (8)

1. cough2. fever3. dyspnea4. sweating5. chills6. chest pain or tightness7. headache8. fatigue

62

diagnosing pneumonia(3)

listening to the chest for rales or rumblingchest xrayblood and mucus tests (less common)

63

Course of pneumonia

1. signs of the flu2. severity of symptoms depend on the infecting organism3. caught early enough avoid hospitalization4. If hospitalized, usually 3-4days5. Older adults over 85 may have other health complications

64

if left untreated pneumonia can lead to

severe respiratory distress and even death b/c organs are no longer getting the O2 that they need and begin to fail

65

Prevention of pneumonia (2)

vaccinationflu shot

66

Standard treatment plan for pneumonia

1. antibiotics2.. rest3. fluids

67

Cough is not totally stopped in pneumonia with medications because

it is an important mechanism for removing excess mucus from the airways

68

COPD is an overarching term that also includes (2)

emphysema and chronic bronchitis

69

Physically, a COPD lung is more

floppy and somewhat deflated or damaged

70

emphysema

the alveoli walls may become deflated or damaged which reduces the amount of gas exchange that can occur

71

chronic bronchitis

the bronchial tubes become inflamed and thickened making it difficult to breathe

72

Symptoms of COPD (4)

smoker's cough (persistent mucus producer)wheezing or whistling while inhalingchest tightnessdyspnea with exertion

73

As COPD progresses other symptoms may include (2)

swollen ankles and feet lips and fingernails may be bluish due to decreased oxygen levels

74

What is the main test for lung Fn for those with COPD?

spirometry

75

Course of COPD

1. breathing becomes more difficult and less O2 get to the body2. heart becomes enlarged due to strain3. BP increases4. Cognitive deficits due to lack of O25. Organ failure6. Death

76

Medical management of COPD includes

1. Oxygen2. Inhaled medications3. oral medications4. Lung reduction surgery or replacement.

77

What are the first two things an OT practitioner should determine?

1.determine the occupational needs of the client 2.determine the effects of their symptoms on occupational performance

78

Common symptoms that impact occupational performance in cardiopulmonary disorders

1. dyspnea2. fatigue3. depression4. difficulty focusing5. anxiety6. light-headed

79

Dyspnea's impact on occupational performance

may need frequent breaks and may need chairs placed in various positions around their house to provide a place to sit

80

Fatigues impact on occupational performance

may need to have tasks broken down into smaller parts and to do them over a longer period of time. Work simplification and energy conservation

81

Depressions impact on occupational performance

encouragement to participate, support in successes, and empathy

82

Difficulty focusing and it's impact on occupational performance

visual reminders and verbal cues. Processing time may be lengthened, so a slower pace may be helpful when problem-solving more complex tasks.

83

Anxiety's impact on occupational performance

more time, encouragement, and pleasant distractions can help them move forward with the small day-to-day tasks. May become a larger issue that keeps clients from doing what they need to do.

84

Light-headedness: impact on occupational performance

allow the client to sit whenever possible to complete a task. have seats close and encourage them to stand near a stable counter or table, or use a grab bar is standing is needed.

85

It is important for OT's to consider how precautions impact a clients

ability to safely complete all areas of occupations

86

Common Precautions for Cardiopulmonary disorders(6)

1. No heavy lifting2. heart rate less than or equal to 110 beats/minute3. O2 at all times4. Maintain low-salt diet5. Record daily weight6. Follow recommended oral and inhaled medication schedule7. No activities at a MET rate of higher than 6

87

No heavy lifting - impact on occupational performance

any task that would require lifting would need to be modified or completed by someone else. lifting precautions also limit wheelchair self-propulsion as this too, puts too much strain on the upper body

88

heart rate less than or equal to 110 beats/minute - impact on occupational performance

clients will need to be taught to take their own heart rate and be reminded to take it if more exertion is attempted. Written cues may be needed for reminders.

89

O2 at all times - impact on occupational performance

Clients will need to be connected to an oxygen source; tank and long hose must be manipulated to ensure safety with mobility

90

Maintain low-salt diet - impact on occupational performance

Clients may need to modify cooking habits and seasoning habits and to explore alternatives

91

Record daily weight - impact on occupational performance

CHF clients may need a scale with large numbers and system setup for recording their daily weight. Scale may need to be in a place where client can hold on to something stable while stepping on and off.

92

Follow recommended oral and inhaled medication schedule - impact on occupational performance

Visual reminders and environmental set up may be needed. Dedicated site when doing breathing treatments help.

93

No activities at a MET rate of higher than 6 - impact on occupational performance

Clients will have limited tasks that they can complete until this precaution is lifted. Higher met values may not be permitted for many weeks.

94

COPD

a condition in which airflow blockages that create breathing-related problems: includes emphysema and /ore chronic bronchitis

95

emphysema

a type of COPD characterized by permanent damage to the alveoli in the lungs, resulting in shortness of breath and difficulty exhaling

96

chronic bronchitis

tpre of copd characterized by the inflammation and eventual scarring of the lining of the bronchial tubes producing thick mucus and restricting airflow

97

Chronic bronchitis is diagnosed when a person has a

mucus-producing cough most day of the month, 3 months of a year for two successive years without other underlying disease to explain the cough

98

Tests for COPD include (4)

1. lung Fn test using spirometry2. CT scans3. Chest Xrays4. arterial blood gas level tests

99

Most common cause of COPD is

cigarette smoke

100

COPD is caused by long term exposure to

inhalation of lung irritants

101

Lung irritants include (5)

1. first-hand smoking2. second-hand smokeAnd long term inhalation of3. Dust4. air pollution5. Chemical fumes

102

Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency

a condition in which the body produces a low level of lung-protective protein

103

People with AAT deficiency have an increased risk of developing

COPD

104

There are 4 stages of COPD

1. I - Mild2. II- Moderate3. III - Severe4. IV - Very Severe

105

Initially patients may attribute COPD symptoms to (3)

1. having a cold2. ageing3. being physically out of shape

106

Initial symptoms of COPD (4)

1. persistent cough or a cough that produces large amounts of mucus2. dyspnea, particularly during and after physical activity3. wheezing4. chest tightness

107

Symptoms of COPD with disease progression(7)

1. edema in the ankles, feet, or legs2. weight loss and muscle atrophy3. decreased endurance, fatigue4. bluish-colored lips and/or fingernails5. severe and constant dyspnea that inhibits even talking6. Rapid heartbeat7. Decreased alertness

108

individuals with COPD contract (3)

1. cold 2.flu 3. other illnesses frequently

109

Clients with COPD experience a decrease in (2)

1. occupational performance and participation2. quality of life and self-efficacy

110

Most COPD clients develop a comorbid diagnosis of

depression

111

Other comorbid diagnosis with COPD are (3)

1. hypertension2. high cholesterol3. osteoporosis

112

What drugs are commonly prescribed for COPD?

1. Bronchodilators2. anti-inflammatory drugs3. antibiotics (to combat contraction of illnesses)

113

oxygen therapy as an intervention for COPD

physician or respiratory therapist will work with a client to determine the best form of supplemental oxygen containers, liquid oxygen containers, and oxygen concentrators

114

Types of lung surgery as an intervention for COPD

1. lung transplants2. Lung volume reduction (removes damaged portions to increase ventilation ability)3. removal of damaged or diseased alveoli

115

Occupational Therapy interventions for pulmonary conditions are done separately or as part of a pulmonary rehab team and include the following (8)

1. teaching energy conservation techniques2. retraining in ADLs3. UE strength and ROM training4. Educating client and family members about the risk factors of respiratory conditions and measures to be taken to remain healthy and functional5. Lifestyle modification6. environmental assessment7. Medication management8. Recommendations of support groups and resources within the community

116

OT interventions has been shown to increase (4) for patients with Pulmonary conditions

1. physical Fn2. Quality of life3. independence and efficiency in ADL/IADLs4. decrease dyspnea in clients with COPD

117

OT for COPD also can result in improvements in

1. Social Fning 2. overall physical health3. psychological health

118

Teaching energy conservation techniques are used to (Pulmonary Conditions)

minimize respiratory exertion; may include environmental adaptions, breathing techniques and so forth

119

Retraining in ADLs may include (Pulmonary Conditions)

grading activities to optimize participation without causing excessive strain; using assistive devices if necessary

120

UE strength and ROM training may be necessary because (Pulmonary conditions)

clients with these conditions often use their shoulder girdle muscles to assist in inhalation, maintaining strength in these muscles is necessary

121

An example of lifestyle modification is

identifying new or alternate occupations that allow client to participate satisfactorily without exacerbating the pulmonary condition

122

Diagnosis and management of pulmonary disorders may include (4)

1. Administering pulmonary function tests2. Arterial blood gas analysis3. Chest X-rays 4. Chemical or microbiological tests

123

Adenoid/o

Adenoids

124

Adenoidectomy

Excision of adenoids

125

Laryng/o

Larynx

126

Laryngoscope

Instrument for examining the larynx

127

Nas/o

Nose

128

Rhin/o

Nose

129

Rhinorrhea

Discharge of the noseAka runny nose

130

Pharyng/o

Pharynx (throat)

131

Pharyngospasm

Spasm of the muscles of the pharynx

132

Tonsill/o

Tonsils

133

Trache/o

Trachea -windpipe

134

Tracheotomy

Incision of the trachea

135

Alveol/o

Alveolus; air sac

136

Alveolar

Pertaining to the alveolus

137

Bronch/o

Bronchus - Plural bronchi

138

Bronchoscopy

Endoscopic procedure that examines The interior bronchi using a bronchoscope.

139

Bronchoscope is inserted 2 ways

1. Transnasally2. Through the mouth

140

Bronchoscopy's are performed to (4)

1. Remove obstructions2. Obtain a biopsy specimen3. Observed directly for pathological changes4. In children, remove foreign objects that have been inhaled

141

What are the two reasons that are most common for adults to get a bronchoscopy?

1. Obtain samples of suspicious lesions a.k.a. biopsy2. Culturing specific areas in the lung

142

Bronchi/o

Bronchus (plural, bronchi)

143

Bronchiol/o

Bronchioles

144

Bronchiolitis

Inflammation of the bronchioles

145

Phren/o

Diaphragm

146

Phrenalgia

Pain in the diaphragm

147

Pleur/o

Pleura

148

Pleurodynia

Pain in the pleura

149

Pneum/o

Air; lung

150

Pneumomelanosis

Abnormal blackening of the lung tissue

151

Pneumon/o

Air, lung

152

Pulmonary

Pertaining to the lungs or the respiratory system

153

pulmon/o

lung

154

thorac/o

chest

155

thoracopathy

any disease of the thoracic organs or tissue

156

aer/o

air

157

aerophagia

excessive swallowing of air, usually an unconscious process associated with anxiety, resulting in abdominal distention or belching; these are often interpreted by the patient as signs of a physical disorder.

158

cyan/o

blue

159

cyanosisWhat is it? What causes it?What is it associated with?

physical sign causing bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes; caused by a lack of oxygen in the blood; associated with cold temperatures, heart failure, lung diseases, and smothering

160

muc/o

mucus

161

mucoid

resembling mucus

162

myc/o

fungus

163

mycosis

abnormal condition caused by fungus

164

orth/o

straight

165

orthopnea

dyspnea that is relieved when in an upright position

166

py/o

pus

167

pyothorax

pus in the pleural cavity

168

a-

without, not

169

brady-

slow

170

dys-

bad; painful; difficult

171

eu-

good, normal

172

tachy-

rapid

173

friction rub

dry, grating sound heard with a stethoscope during ausculation (listening for sounds within the body)

174

stridor

high-pitched, musical sound made on inspiration; caused by an obstruction in the trachea or larynx

175

acidosis

excessive acidity of blood as a result of blood as a result of an accumulation of acids or an excessive loss of bicarbonate caused by abnormally high levels of CO2 in the body

176

Acute respiratory distress syndrome(ARDS) What is it?What causes it?

Life-threatening buildup of fluid in the alveoli caused by vomit in the lungs (aspiration), and hailing chemicals, pneumonia, septic shock, or trauma

177

ARDS prevents

Enough oxygen from passing into the bloodstream

178

Anosmia

Absence or decrease in the sense of smell

179

Anoxia

Total absence of O2 and body tissues;

180

Anoxia is caused by

Lack of O2 in inhaled air or by obstruction that prevents 02 from reaching the lungs

181

Asphyxia

Condition of insufficient intake of oxygen as a result of choking, toxic gases, electric shock, drugs, drowning, smoke or trauma

182

AtelectasisWhat is it? How is it caused?

Collapse of lung tissue, which prevents the respiratory exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide and it's caused by various conditions including obstruction of foreign bodies, excessive secretions, or pressure on them on from a tumor

183

Coryza

Acute inflammation of the nasal passages accompanied by profuse nasal discharge; also called a cold

184

Croup

Acute respiratory syndrome that occurs primarily in children and infants and is characterized by laryngeal obstruction and spasm, barking cough, and stridor

185

Cystic fibrosis (CF)

Genetic disease that is one of the most common types of chronic lung disease in children and young adults and causes thick, sticky mucus to build up in the lungs and digestive tract, possibly resulting in early death

186

Epistaxis

Hemorrhage from the nose; also known as nose red

187

Hypercapnia

Greater than normal amounts of carbon dioxide in the blood

188

Hypoxemia

Deficiency of oxygen in body tissues; usually a sign of respiratory impairment

189

Influenza

Acute, contagious respiratory infection characterized by sudden onset of fever, chills, headache, and muscle pain

190

Otitis media (OM) What is it? What's the cause?What is the symptom?How is it treated?

Inflammation of the middle ear, commonly the result of an URI with symptoms of otodynia; may be treated with myringotomy or tympanostomy tubes

191

Exudative

OM with the presence of fluid, such as pus or serum

192

Pertussis

Acute infectious disease characterized by a "whoop"-sounding cough; also called whooping cough

193

Pleurisy

Inflammation of the pleural membrane characterized by a stabbing pain that is intensified by deep breathing or coughing

194

Pneumothorax

Collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity, causing the complete or partial collapse of a lung

195

SIDS

Completely unexpected and unexplained death of an apparently well, or virtually well, infant; aka crib death

196

Arterial blood gases (ABGs)

Group of tests that measure the oxygen ad co2 concentration in an arterial blood sample

197

Mantoux test

Intradermal test to determine recent or past exposure to tuberculosis (TB)

198

Polysomnography (PSG)What is it?What does it evaluate?

Sleep study test monitored by a technician while the patient sleeps; used to evaluate physical factors affecting sleep, such as heart rate and activity, breathing, eye and muscle movements, snoring, kicking during sleep, and sleep cycles and stages

199

Pulmonary function tests (PFTs)

Various tests used to determine the capacity of the lungs to exchange O2 and CO2 efficiently

200

Spirometry What is it? What is it used for?What is it used to assess?

Common lung function test that measures and records volume and rate of inhaled and exhaled air.Used to assess pulmonary function by means of a spirometer.Assess obstructive lung disease especially asthma and COPD

201

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

Basic emergency procedure for life-support, consisting of artificial respiration and manual external cardiac massage

202

Endotracheal intubation

Procedure in which an airway catheter is inserted through the mouth or nose into the trachea just above the bronchi in patients who are unable to breathe on their own; also used to administer oxygen, medication, or anesthesia

203

Postural drainage

Use of body positioning to assist in the removal of secretions from specific lobes of the lung, bronchi, or lung cavities

204

Thoracic entasis

Use of a needle to collect pleural fluid for laboratory analysis or to remove excess pleural fluid or air from the pleural space. Aka thorax entrails

205

Tracheostomy

Incision into the trachea (tracheotomy) and creation of a permanent opening through which a tracheostomy tube is inserted to keep the opening patent.

206

Bronchodilators

Dilate constricted airways by relaxing muscle spasms in the bronchial tubes through oral administration or inhalation via a metered-dose inhaler (MDI)

207

corticosteroids

suppress the inflammatory reaction that causes swelling and narrowing of the bronchi

208

expectorants

improve the ability to cough up mucus from the respiratory tract

209

metered-dose

device that enables the patient to self-administer a specific amount of medication into the lungs through inhalation

210

nebulized mist treatment (NMT)

method of administering medication directly into the lungs using a device (nebulizer) that produces a fine spray; also called aerosol therapy

211

apnea

temporary cessation of breathing

212

sleep apneaWhat is it?What can it cause?

sudden cessation of breathing during sleep that can result in hpoxia and lead to cognitive impariment, hypertension, and arrhythmias.

213

obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)What is it?Signs/symptoms?

physical obstruction in the upper airways; usually marked by recurrent sleep interruptions, choking and gasping spells on awakening, and drowsiness caused by loss of normal sleep.

214

Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)

gentle ventilator support used to keep the airways open

215

An example of a physical obstruction in OSA is

enlarged tonsils

216

If OSA is left untreated it can cause(3)

1. central sleep apnea2. pulmonary failure3. cardiac abnormalities

217

3 major disorders included in COPD

1. asthma2. chronic bronchitis3. emphysema

218

In COPD air reaches the alveoli in the lungs during inhalation but

it is not fully exhaled.

219

Predisposing factors of COPD are (4)

1. smoking2. prolonged exposure to polluted air3. respiratory infections4. allergies

220

Medications used to alleviate the symptoms of COPD (2)

1. bronchodilators2. corticosteroids

221

Distended bronchioles and alveoli are associated with

emphysema

222

Inflamed airways and excessive mucus are associated with

chronic bronchitis

223

narrowed bronchial tubes and swollen mucous membranes are associated with

asthma

224

uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPP)

removal of excess tissue in the throat to make the airway wider.