Med. Term Ch. 5 Cardiovascular System (Week 3) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Med. Term Ch. 5 Cardiovascular System (Week 3) Deck (154)
1

Arteries

Large blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart

2

Capillaries

Microscopic blood vessels joining arteriolar and venules

3

Congenital

Pertaining to presence of a disorder at the time of birth which may result from genetic or environmental causes

4

Metabolism

Some of all physical and chemical changes that take place within an organism

5

Veins

Vessels that return deoxygenated blood to the heart

6

Cardiology

Focuses on medical surgical and therapeutic treatments of heart diseases

7

What are the three types of cardiology specialist?

1.cardiologists
2.pediatric cardiologist
3.cardiac surgeons

8

12 surgeries performed by cardiac surgeons (Spackman p1125)

1.angioplasty
2.stenting
3. Atherectomy
4.CABG
5.Minimnal invasive bypass surgery
6.transmyocardial revascularization
7. Valve replacement
8. Radio frequency or catheter ablation
9.LVAD
10.defibrillator/pacemaker
11. Cardiomyoplasty
12.heart transplant

9

Cardiovascular (CV) system is composed of

The heart and extensive network of blood vessels

10

The main purpose of the circulatory system is to

Deliver oxygen, nutrients and other essential body substances to body cells and remove waste products of cellular metabolism

11

A contraction is known as

Systole

12

The resting period Between contractions when the heart fills with blood is known as

Diastole

13

Aneurysm/o

Widening, widened blood vessel

14

Aneurysmectomy

Excision of an aneurysm;to repair a weak area and they order that is likely to rupture if left in place

15

Aort/o

Aorta

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Aortostenosis

Narrowing of the aorta

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Arter/o
Arteri/o

Artery

18

Arteritis

Inflammation of the artery

19

Arteriosclerosis

Thickening, hardening and loss of elasticity of arterial walls; also called hardening of the arteries

20

Ather/o

Fatty plaque

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Atheroma

Accumulation of degenerative material in the inner layer of artery walls. The material consists debris containing lipids calcium and variable amounts of fibrous connective tissue

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Atri/o

Atrium

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Atrium

To upper cavities of the heart from which blood is passed to the ventricles. The right atrium receives deoxygenated blood from the veins of the body and the left atrium receives oxygenated blood from the pulmonary vein

24

Cardi/o

Heart

25

Cardiomegaly

Enlargement of the heart

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Coron/o

Heart

27

Coronary

Pertaining to the heart

28

Phleb/o

Vein

29

Phlebitis

Inflammation of the veins

30

Ven/o

Vein

31

Venous

Pertaining to the vein

32

Thromb/o

Blood clot

33

Thrombolysis

Destruction of blood clots

34

Varic/o

Dilated vein

35

Varicose

Pertaining to dilated veins

36

Vas/o

Vessel; vast deferens ; duct

37

Vasospasm

Involuntary contractions of the vessel

38

Vascul/o

Vessel

39

Vascular

Pertaining to vessels

40

Ventricul/o

Ventricle (of the heart or brain)

41

Interventricular

Pertaining to the area in between ventricles

42

-cardia

Heart condition

43

Tachycardia

Abnormally rapid heart rate

44

-gram

Record, writing

45

Electrocardiogram

Record of electrical activity of the heart

46

-graph

Instrument for recording

47

Electrocardiograph

Instrument for recording electrical activity of the heart

48

-graphy

Process of recording

49

Angiography

Process of recording images of the lumen of blood vessels

50

-stenosis

Narrowing, stricture

51

Brady-

Slow

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Bradycardiac

Pertaining to the slow heart rate

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Endo-

In, within

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Endocardium

Structure with in the heart

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Epi-

Above, upon

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Epicardium

Structure above the heart

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Peri-

Around

58

Pericardium

Structure around the heart

59

Angioplasty

Surgical procedure that opens a blocked artery by inflating a small balloon within a catheter to widen and restore blood flow in the artery

60

Aneurysm

Abnormal widening or ballooning of a portion of an artery as a result of weakness in its wall, or it may be present at birth(congenital)- The larger the aneurysm becomes, the greater the risk of rupture

61

Angina pectoris

Mild to severe pain or pressure in the chest caused by ischemia also called angina

62

Fusiform aneurysm

Dilation of the entire circumference of the artery

63

Saccular aneurysm

Bulging on one side of the artery wall

64

Dissecting aneurysm

Tear (dissection) in the wall of an artery because of bleeding into the weakened wall, which splits the wall (more common in the aorta)

65

Arrhythmia

Irregularity or loss of rhythm of the heart beat also called dysrhythmia

66

Fibrillation

Arrhythmia in which there is rapid uncoordinated quivering of the Myocardium that can affect the atria or ventricles; usually described by part that is contracting abnormally, such as atrial fibrillation or ventricular fibrillation

67

Atherosclerosis

Most common form of arteriosclerosis caused by accumulation of fatty substances within the arterial walls resulting in partial and eventually total blockage

68

Bruit

Soft blowing sound heard on auscultation caused by turbulent bloodflow

69

Embolus

Mass of undissolved matter (commonly a blood clot, fatty plaque or air bubble) that travels through the bloodstream and becomes lodged in a blood vessel

70

Heart block

Disease of the electrical system of the heart which controls activity of heart muscle

71

Heart block first-degree

Atrioventricular (AV) block in which atrial electrical impulses are delayed by a fraction of a second before being conducted to the ventricles

72

Heart block second-degree

AV block in which only some atrial electrical impulses are conducted to the ventricles

73

Heart block third-degree

AV block in which no electrical impulses reach the ventricles also called complete heart block CHB

74

Heart failure HF

Occurs when the heart is unable to pump enough blood flow to meet the needs of the body and can cause a number of symptoms such as shortness of breath, led swelling and exercise intolerance

75

Hypertension HTN

Consistently elevated blood pressure causing damage to the blood vessels and ultimately the heart

76

Ischemia

Inadequate supply of oxygenated blood to a body part as a result of an interruption of blood flow

77

Mitral valve prolapse MVP

Structural abnormality in which the mitral (bicuspid) valve does not close completely resulting in a backflow of blood into the left atrium with each contraction

78

Murmur

Abnormal sound heard on auscultation caused by defects in the valves or chambers of the heart

79

Myocardial infarction MI

Necrosis Of a portion of cardiac muscle caused by partial or complete occlusion of one or more coronary artery's also called heart attack

80

Patent ductus arteriosus
PDA

Failure of the ductus arteriosus (which connects the pulmonary artery to the aortic arc in a fetus) to close after birth, resulting in abnormal opening between the pulmonary artery and the aorta

81

Raynaud disease

Severe sudden vasoconstriction and spasm in fingers and toes folllowed by cyanosis after exposure to cold temperature or emotional stress also called Raynaud phenomenon

82

Rheumatic heart disease

Streptococcal infection that causes damage to the heart valves and heart muscle, most commonly in children and young adults

83

Stroke

Damaged part of the brain as a result of interruption of its blood supply caused by bleeding within brain tissue or more commonly blockage of an artery; also called cerebrovascular accident CVA

84

Thrombus

A stationary blood clot formed within a blood vessel or within the heart commonly causing vascular obstruction also called blood clot

85

Deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

Formation of a blood clot in a deep vein of the body occurring most commonly in the lower leg

86

Transient ischemic attack (TIA)

Blood supply to part of the brain is briefly interrupted but does not cause permanent brain damage and may be a warning sign of a more serious or debilitating stroke in the future; also called mini stroke

87

Cardiac catheterization

Insertion of a small tube, catheter ,through an incision into a large vein, usually of an arm (brachial approach) or leg (femoral approach) which is threaded through a blood vessel until it reaches the heart

88

Cardiac enzyme studies

Battery of blood tests performed to determine the presence of cardiac damage

89

Doppler ultrasonography

Ultrasound technique that records blood flow velocity (speed) to image major blood vessels to detect obstructions caused by atherosclerotic plaques in patients at risk for stroke

90

Echocardiography (ECHO)

Ultrasound technique used to image the heart and evaluate how the heart's chambers and the valves are working and to diagnose and detect pathological conditions

91

Electrocardiography
ECG EKG

Creation and study of graphic recordings (electrocardiograms) produced by electrical activity generated by the heart muscle; also called cardiography

92

Holter monitor

Monitoring device worn by a patient that records prolonged electrocardiograph readings (usually 24 hours), on a portable tape recorder while the patient conducts normal daily activities

93

Stress test

EKG taken under controlled exercise stress conditions (typically using a treadmill) while measuring oxygen consumption

94

Nuclear stress test

ECG that uses a radioisotope to evaluate coronary bloodflow

95

Troponin I

Blood test that measures protein released into the blood by damaged heart muscle(not skeletal muscle). And is a highly sensitive specific indicator of recent myocardial infarction MI

96

Angioplasty

Surgery that opens a blocked artery by inflating a small balloon with a catheter to widen it to restore blood flow in the artery

97

Cardioversion

Restoration of normal heart rhythm by applying and electrical countershock to the chest using a device also called defibrillation

98

Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)

Bypass surgery in which peripheral veins are removed, and each end of the vein is sutured onto the coronary artery to create new routes around narrowed and blocked arteries, allowing sufficient blood flow to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscle

99

Defibrillator

Device used to administer defibrillating electrical shock to restore normal heart rythm

100

Automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ACID)

Surgically implanted electrical device that continuously monitors and corrects potentially fatal arrhythmia by delivering low-energy shocks to the heart; also called implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)

101

Automatic external defibrillator (AED)

Portable computerized device that analyzes the patient's heart rhythm and delivers an electrical shock to simulate a heart in cardiac arrest

102

Endarterectomy

Surgical removal of the lining of an artery

103

Carotid endarterectomy

Removal of arthrosclerosis, and thromboses from an occluded carotid artery to reduce the risk of stroke

104

Endovenous laser therapy (EVLT)

Treatment of large varicose veins in the legs in which a laser fiber is inserted directly into the affected vein to heat the lining within the vein, causing it to collapse, shrink, and eventually disappear; also called endovenous laser ablation (EVLA)

105

Sclerotherapy

Chemical injection into a varicose vein that causes inflammation and formation of fibrous tissue, which closes the vein

106

Valvuloplasty

Insertion of a balloon catheter in a blood vessel in the groin through the aorta and into the heart to widen a stenotic (stiffened) heart valve and increase blood flow; also called percutaneous valvuloplasty

107

Anticoagulants

Prevent clotting or coagulation of blood

108

Beta blockers

Slow the heart rate and reduce the force with which the heart muscle contracts, lowering blood pressure

109

Nitrates

Relieve just change associated with angina and ease symptoms of heart(HF)

110

Satins

Reduce cholesterol levels in the blood and black production of an enzyme in the liver that produce cholesterol

111

Thrombolytics

Dissolve (lyse) blood clots in a process known as thrombolysis

112

AAA

Abdominal aortic aneurysm

113

AED

Automatic external defibrillator

114

AICD

Automated implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

115

ASHD

Arteriosclerotic heart disease

116

BP

Blood pressure

117

CABG

Coronary artery bypass graft

118

CAD

Coronary artery disease

119

CT

Computed tomography

120

CV

Cardiovascular

121

CVA

Cerebrovascular accident; costovertebral angle

122

EVLT

Endovenous laser therapy; endoluminal laser therapy

123

HDL

High-density lipoprotein

124

HF

Heart failure

125

HTN

Hypertension

126

ICD

Implantable cardioverter-difribrillator

127

MI

Myocardial infarction

128

MVP

Mitral valve prolapse

129

PDA

Patent ductus arteriosus

130

TIA

Transient ischemic attack

131

US

Ultrasound, ultrasonography

132

Coranary Artery Disease (CAD)

narrowing of the coronary arteries that results in failure of the arteries to deliver an adequate supply of oxygenated blood to the myocardium

133

myocardium

heart muscle

134

arteriostenosis

narrowing of the arterial walls

135

What causes arteriostenosis?

artherosclerosis

136

CAD causes the ordinarily ___ ___ of the artery to become roughened as the ___ __ collects in the artery

smooth lining
atherosclerotic plaque

137

Artherosclerotic plaque causes partial and, eventually, total blockage of the artery called an ____

occlusion

138

_____ is a condition that occurs when there is a decreased supply of oxygenated blood to the myocardium

ischemia

139

A total or almost total occlusioin causes what to die?

myocardium

140

When myocardium dies it causes_____

a myocardial infarction (MI)

141

CAD can be surgically treated by these 2 surgeries

1. angioplasty
2. CABG

142

What forms as a localized dilation of the abdominal aorta exceeding its normal diameter by more than 50%?

AAA - Abdominal aortic aneurysm

143

80-90% of all AAA ruptures result in

Death

144

Symptoms of an AAA

usually none

145

AAA is diagnosed by

xray or CT scan performed for an evaluation of ANOTHER condition

146

Large AAA require repairing the aneurysm with

synthetic graft or a stent-graft

147

varicose veins are also known as

varicosities

148

Varicose veins are caused by

dilated veins due to long periods of pressure that prevents complete closure of the valves

149

Incompetent valves

do not close all the way

150

Varicose veins

enlarged, twisted superficial veins

151

Symptoms of varicose veins (3)

1. aching
2. feeling fatigue
3. skin changes

152

blood pooling in varicose veins puts a person at risk for

thrombosis

153

Risk factors for varicose veins (4)

prolonged standing
prolonged sitting
pregnancy
family hx

154

Treatments of varicose veins (3)

sclerotherapy
EVLA of the greater saphenous veins in the legs
microphlebectomies of the lesser saphenos veins