FINAL EXAM - Visual System Flashcards Preview

OCTH 1031 > FINAL EXAM - Visual System > Flashcards

Flashcards in FINAL EXAM - Visual System Deck (112)
1

Cornea transplantation

Procedure in which a damage cornea is replaced by the cornea from the eye of a human cadaver also known as keratoplasty

2

Glaucoma

Eye disease in which increased eyeball pressure causes gradual loss of sight

3

Ocular

Pertaining to the Eye or sense of sight

4

Radial keratotomy

Surgery to correct myopia, nearsightedness, by changing the shape of the cornea

5

Sleep apnea

condition in which breathing stops for more than 10 seconds during sleep

6

Ophthalmology

Branch of medicine concerning the diagnosis and treatment of Eye disorders

7

Otolaryngology

A medical and surgical management of patients with disorders of the ear nose and throat (ENT) and related structures of the head and neck

8

Blephar/o

Eyelid

9

Choroid/o

Choroid

10

Cor/o
Core/o
Pupill/o

Pupil

11

Dacry/o
Lacrim/o

Tear; lacrimal apparatus

12

Irid/o

Iris

13

Kerat/o

Horny tissue; hard; cornea

14

Acous/o
Audi/o
Audit/o

Hearing

15

Myring/o
Tympan/o

Tympanic membrane( eardrum)

16

Salping/o

Eustachian tube

17

-acusis
-cusis

Hearing

18

-opia
-opsia

Vision

19

-ptosis

Prolapse, downward displacement

20

Exo-

Outside, outward

21

Achromatopsia

Congenital deficiency and color perception that is more common in men; also called colorblindness

22

Astigmatism

Refractive disorder in which excessive curvature of the cornea or lens causes late to be scattered over the retina, rather than focus on a single point, resulting in a distorted image

23

Conjunctivitis

Inflammation of the conjunctiva thatcan be caused by bacteria, allergy, irritation, or a foreign body; also called pinkeye

24

Diabetic retinopathy

Retinal damage in diabetic patients marked by aneurysmal dilation and bleeding of blood vessels or the formation of new blood vessels causing visual changes

25

Hordeolum

Small, Pearland, inflammatory infection of a sebaceous gland of the eyelid also called stye

26

Photophobia

Unusual intolerance and sensitivity to light that occurs in disorders such as meningitis, Eye inflammation, measles, and rubella

27

Retinal detachment

Separation of the retina from the Choroid, which disrupts vision and results and blindness if not repaired

28

Strabismus

Muscular Eye disorder in which the eyes turn from the normal position so that they deviate in different directions

29

Esotropia

Strabismus in which there is deviation of the visual axis of one I tried that of the other eye, resulting in diplopia; also called cross Eye or convergent strabismus

30

Exotropia

Strabismus in which there is deviation of the visual axis of one Eye away from that of the other, resulting in diplopia also called walleye or divergent strabismus

31

Anacusis

Total deafness

32

Conductive hearing loss

Results from any condition that prevents sound waves from being transmitted to the auditory receptors

33

Presbycusis

Hearing loss that gradually Occurs in most individuals as they grow older

34

Sensorineural

Inability of nerve stimuli to be delivered to the brain from the inner ear as a result of damage to the auditory nerve or cochlea; also called nerve deafness

35

Meniere disease

Rare disorder characterized by Progressive deafness, vertigo, and tonight is, possibly secondary to spelling of membrane structures within the labyrinth

36

Otitis media (OM)

Inflammation of the middle ear, which is commonly the result of an upper respiratory infection and maybe treated with Tympanostomy tube insertion

37

Otosclerosis

Progressive deafness secondary to ossification in the bony labyrinth of the inner ear

38

Tinnitus

Ringing or tingling sound heard constantly or intermittently in one or both ears, even in a quiet environment, that usually results from damage to inner ear structures associated with hearing

39

Vertigo

Sensation of moving around in space or a feeling of spending or dizziness that usually results from inner ear structure damage associated with balance and equilibrium

40

Tonometry

Test to measure the pressure inside the eye (intraocular pressure); used to screen for glaucoma

41

Visual acuity test

Standard I examination to determine the smallest letter a person can read in the Snellen chart at a distance of 20 feet

42

Audiometry

Test that measures hearing acuity at various sound frequencies

43

Otoscopy

Visual examination of the external auditory canal and the tympanic membrane using an otoscope

44

Tuning fork test

Hearing tests that use a tuning fork that is struck and then placed against or nears he bones on the side of the head to assess nerve or bone conduction of sound

45

Time

Evaluates bone conduction of sound in one ear at a time

46

Weber

Evaluates bone conduction of sound and both ears at the same time

47

Cataract surgery

Excision of lens affected by cataract

48

Phacoemulsification

Excision of the lens by ultrasonic vibrations that break the lens into tiny particles, which are suctioned out of that eye; also called small incision cataract surgery SICS

49

Iridectomy

Excision of a portion of the iris used to relieve intraocular pressure in patients with glaucoma

50

Laser Iridectomy

Laser surgery that creates an opening on the rim of the iris to allow aqueous humor to flow between the anterior and posterior chambers to relieve intraocular pressure that occurs as a result of glaucoma; is replacing iridectomy because it is a safer procedure

51

Laser photocoagulation

Use of a laser beam to seal leaking or hemorrhaging retinal blood vessels to treat diabetic retinopathy

52

Cochlear implant

Electronic transmitter surgically implanted into the cochlea of a deaf person to restore hearing

53

Ear irrigation

Process of flushing the external ear canal with sterile water or sterile saline solution to treat blockages of a foreign body or cerumen (earwax) impaction

54

Myringoplasty

Surgical repair of a pearl for rated eardrum with the tissue graft to correct hearing loss; also called tympanoplasty

55

Myringotomy

Incision of the tympanic membrane (eardrum) to relieve pressure and drain fluid from the middle ear or to insert tympanostomy tubes and that your drum via surgery

56

Antiglaucoma agents

Reduce intraocular pressure by decreasing the amount of aqueous humor and eyeball either by reducing its production or by increasing its outflow

57

Miotics

Cause the people to constrict

58

Mydriatics

Cause the people to dilate and prepare the Eye for an internal examination

59

Vertigo and motion sickness agents

Decreased sensitivity of the inner ear to motion and prevent nerve impulses from the inner ear from reaching the vomiting center of the brain

60

Wax emulsifiers

Loosen and help remove impacted cerumen

61

Open angle glaucoma

Painless but destroys peripheral vision causing tunnel vision

62

Closed angle glaucoma

Medical emergency; caused by an anatomically narrow angle between the iris and the cornea which prevents outflow of aqueous humor from into the lymphatic system causing a sudden increase in inter-ocular pressure.

63

Pressure equalizing tubes PE tubes

Plastic cylinders surgically inserted into the air drum to drain fluid and equalize pressure between the middle and outer ear; most commonly used in children who have reoccurring ear infections

64

Cataract

OK city of the lens of the eye, usually occurring as a result of aging, trauma, metabolic disease, or the adverse effects of certain medications or chemicals

65

Integrity of vision fn's impact

the performance on functional activities

66

Vision loss is or is not a normal part of aging?

is NOT

67

Vision impacts the following domains

1. Areas of occupation
2. client factors
3. performance skills
4. performance patterns
5. context and environment

68

Cornea Fn

allows light to enter the eye and begins to bend or refract the light

69

pupillary Fn

allow refracted light rays to enter the eye.

70

lens Fn

focuses light rays on the retina, accommodates for near and distance vision

71

macular fn

specializes in high acuity vision

72

retina

highly complex structure made up of rods and cones that create images

73

normal aging of the cornea (4)

1. decrease sensitivity to touch (contact lenses)
2. corneal fragility increases
3. corneal curvature changes
4. astigmatism increases through out life

74

normal aging of the pupil (2)

1. shrinks in diameter
2. reduction in retinal illuminance
*less light = less images

75

Normal aging of the lens (4)

1. yellows and absorbs short wavelengths more than long
2. becomes thicker with less light passes through lens
3. has less elasticity
4. decrease sensitivity to violet/blue at the end of the color spectrum

76

Age related decrease in visual changes (6)

1. visual acuity
2. visual field
3. visual attention
4. contrast sensitivity (white pill, white counter)
5. dark/light adaption
6. color perception

77

Age related increases in visual changes (4)

1. susceptibility to glare
2. need for light
3. dry eye
4. floaters (strands of protein in vitreous)

78

low vision - define

partial vision loss that cannot be corrected and the performance of daily tasks are impacted

79

Symptoms of low vision: difficuly (5)

1. recognizing familiar faces
2. performing taks that require close vision
3. discriminating objects
4. reading due to "distorted" print
5. participation in tasks due to poor lighting

80

Cataracts- (2) ways to form

1. protein clumping in the lens causing a reduction of light
2. lens of the eye slowly colors over time and the clients vision may gradually acquire a brownish shade

81

Cataract characteristics (6)

1. development of clouding of the lens
2. deficits such as a hazy/blurred vision, decreased acuity, decreased color discrimination
3. increased sensitivity to glare
4. poor night vision
5. double vision
6. frequent prescription changes with eyeglasses

82

Cataract Risk Factors (6)

1. aging
2. Long-term exposure to sunlight/UV
3. smoking
4. high cholesterol
5. DM
6. eye injury

83

Treatment for cataracts (1)

surgery

84

Glaucoma

normal fluid pressure inside the eye slowly rises leading to vision loss or even blindness. If intraocular pressure is not controlled, it can lead to damage to the optic nerve and other parts of the eye

85

Glaucoma characteristics (3)

1. loss of peripheral vision
2. narrowing of the field of vision
3. loss of contrast sensitivity

86

Glaucoma risk factors (3)

1. heredity
2. ethnicity
3. age

87

Glaucoma treatment (3)

1. medication
2. laser treatment
3. surgery

88

Glaucoma looks like

a thick black circle around the outside and small field of vision in the middle

89

Cataracts looks like

all over blurred vision

90

Diabetic retinopathy

leading cause of blindness; fragile abnormal blood vessels leak blood into the center of the eye causing blurred vision. Fluid leaks into the macula causing the macula to swell and create blurred vision

91

Diabetic retinopathy characteristics (2)

1. near vision distortion
2. visual fields blurred or obstructed

92

Diabetic retinopathy risk factors (1)

1. diabetes

93

Diabetic retinopathy treatment (1)

laser treatment

94

Diabetic retinopathy looks like

blurred vision with dark spots in field of vision that can change as you move

95

Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

blurs sharp, central vision, need for "straight ahead" activities such as driving, reading, sewing.

96

AMD deficits(6)

1. blurred vision
2. difficulty reading
3. reduced color vision
4. increased need for area lighting
5. parts of letters appear missing
6. straight lines appear wavy or crooked

97

AMD risk factors (7)

1. high cholesterol
2. HTN
3. DM
4. smoking
5. impaired circulation to the retina
6. excessive exposure to UV rays
7. hereditary

98

Two types of AMD

1. Wet AMD
2. Dry AMD

99

Wet AMD (4)

1. related to abnormal growth of blood vessels under the macula
2. blood vessels often leak blood and fluid
3. raises the macula from its normal place in the back of the eye causing rapid damage to the macula
4. sudden, severe loss of central vision

100

Dry AMD (4)

1. breakdown of light sensitive cells in the macula
2. blurred spot may be seen in the center of the clients vision
3. subj. complaints may be difficulty in recognizing faces and needing more light for reading/activities
4. Yellow deposits known as drusen can be detected under the retina

101

Early stage of Dry AMD

no symptoms/no vision loss, several small drusen

102

intermediate stage of Dry AMD

medium or large drusen, may see blurred spot

103

advanced stage of dry AMD

drusen, breakdown of light sensitive cells leading to blurred spot in the center of vision which may become bigger and darker over time

104

AMD looks like

dark spot in the center of field of vision, can see peripherally

105

Goals of OT in Low vision Rehab (4)

1. maximize the remaining usable vision
2. provide adaptations to improve the quality of life
3. determine level of safety and need for intervention
4. CANNOT restore lost sight

106

ADL impacted by low vision disorders (4)

1. self-care skills that require visual acuity (Cataracts/AMD): makeup,dental care, nail care, shaving
2. Management of medications - difficulty reading
3. Eating - in advanced stages
4. Safety in Fn mobility

107

IADL Impacted by low vision disorders (3)

1. driving
2. home management: cleaning, laundry, repairs...
3. Money management - reading bills, handling money

108

Play and leisure is impacted by low vision disorders because

many people with low vision disorders are retired and fill most of their time with play/leisure activities

109

Social participation impacted by low vision disorders (3)

1. can't recognize faces- humiliation/embarrassment
2. difficulty negotiating crowded places
3. difficulty reading menus
.

110

Low vision disorders can cause a person (3)

1. anxiety
2. depression
3. loss of independence

111

Saccades

assesses ability for sequenced rapid eye movements

112

OT interventions with Low Vision disorders (8)

1. visual strategies: eccentric viewing
2. contrast enhancement: provide high contrast between foreground and background
3. lighting: increase general light
4. magnification: large print, magnifiers
5. sensory substitutions: use of tactile markings on pill bottles
6. falls prevention: elimination of clutter, handrails, grab bars
7. ADL/IADL retraining/adaptation
8. Caregiver training