Cardiac Conditions - Spackman pp 1124-1126 (Week 3) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Cardiac Conditions - Spackman pp 1124-1126 (Week 3) Deck (64)
1

Cardiac condition (definition)

Any condition that originates and and or affects the heart

2

What are the six common cardiac conditions?

1. Coronary heart disease (CHD)
2. MI
3. CHF
4. Congenital heart
defect's
5. Arrhythmia
6. Cardiac arrest

3

MI

A.k.a. heart attack. it's the damage or death to portion of the cardiac muscle as a result of insufficient oxygenated blood flow. An individual may enter cardiac arrest.

4

CHF

A.k.a. congestive heart failure. Chronic and progressive condition in which the heart cannot sufficiently pump enough blood to meet the bodies need to oxygenate blood. Not to be confused with cardiac arrest

5

What are the three types of congestive heart failure or CHF?

1. Left side systolic heart failure
2.left side diastolic heart failure
3.right-sided heart failure

6

Congenital heart defect

Defects that are present since birth due to abnormalities in the prenatal development of the structures or blood vessels of the heart. Defects may vary and may involve abnormal heart valves or holes in the wall of the heart.

7

Arrhythmia

Any change from the normal or expected electrical impulses that creates a heartbeat. Usually harmless but may result in cardiac arrest

8

Cardiac arrest

The sudden loss of heart function resulting in death within minutes. It may be reversed if the person receives CPR oran electrical shock from an AED

9

Coronary heart disease (CHD)

Most common type of heart disease there's a narrowing of the blood vessels that supply the heart duty buildup of plaque. Eventually leads to and MI, angina, or other complications

10

What is the leading cause of death for both genders in the USA

HD

11

Etiology of CHD

Caused by atherosclerosis, a buildup of plaque along the walls of the arteries that supply the heart, resulting in a narrowing of the vessels

12

Risk factors for CHD (8)

1. High cholesterol
2. Diabetes
3. Smoking
4. Overweight
5. Obesity
6. Poor diet
7. Physical inactivity
8. Alcohol use

13

Etioloyg of a MI

Coronary artery's blood flow is stopped or impeded, this most often happens as a result of blood clots forming in the arteries after portion of atherosclerotic plaque breaks, for example in the case of CHD

14

Cause of CHF

Several compounding conditions including hypertension, CHD, history of MI, congenital heart defect, and diabetes

15

Etiology of congenital heart defect's(3)

Genetics, environmental factors, and/or behaviors and lifestyle choices of the mother

16

Etiology of arrhythmias

HD, am I or any other condition in which the cells responsible for electrical conduction of the heart are affected

17

Risk factors of arrhythmias

1. Congenital conditions 2. side effects of medications
3. use of addictive substances

18

CHD can cause

MI and CHF

19

MI, CHF, and CHD can cause

Arrhythmias

20

Arrhythmias can cause

MI

21

General signs and symptoms of a cardiac event (7)

1. Change in pattern of angina or shortness of breath
2. Heart palpitations or fluttering feeling in chest
3. Feeling lightheaded, dizzy or confused; fainting or near fainting spells
4. Experience more fatigued than expected
5.unusual pain or discomfort in muscles or joints after exercise
6. Sweating
7. Blood pressure falls 20 MM HG or more or heart rate is 20 bpm or more over resting heart rate

22

Sign of CHD

MI is the first sign

23

Signs and symptoms of CHF (9)

1. Shortness of breath
2. Persistent coughing or wheezing
3. Edema
4. Fatigue
5. Lack of appetite
6. Nausea
7. Confusion
8. Impaired thinking
9. Increased heart rate

24

Signs and symptoms of congenital heart defects (5)

1. Blue skin
2. Low blood pressure
3. Difficulty breathing
4. Feeding problems
5. Inability to gain weight

25

Major symptoms of MI (5)

1, Pain or discomfort in the jaw neck or back
2. Feeling weak, lightheaded, or faint
3. Pain or discomfort in arms are shoulder
4. SOB

26

Signs of cardiac arrest (2)

1. Sudden loss of responsiveness
AND
2. No normal breathing

27

When a person is in cardiac arrest, trained individual should

Administer CPR and defibrillation

28

Clients diagnosed with a cardiac condition can experience symptoms of (4)

1. Depression
2. anxiety
3. the condition or their reaction to the condition may result in decreased cognitive functioning
4. Decrease in occupational participation

29

Angioplasty

Deflated balloon is threaded into a coronary artery and then inflated to widen a block area of the vessel and increased blood flow to the heart; often used in combination with stenting

30

Diagnosis of a cardiac condition usually occurs

During or after a medical emergency

31

What may occur after a diagnosis of a cardiac condition

Surgical procedure

32

Surgical procedures for cardiac conditions (12)

1. Angioplasty
2. Stenting
3. Atherectomy
4. CABG
5. Minimally invasive bypass surgery
6. Transmyocardial revascularization TMR
7. Valve replacement
8. Radio frequency or catheter ablation
9. Insertion of left ventricular assistive device (LVAD)
10. Implantation of defibrillator or pacemaker
11. Cardiomyoplasty
12. Heart transplant

33

Atherectomy

A catheter with the rotating shaver trims away plaque from artery walls

34

CABG

Grafting vessels from other parts of the body to the blocked coronary artery in order to reroute blood flow

35

Minimally invasive bypass surgery

They use a video monitors and scopes inserted through small incisions in the chest to perform bypasses

36

Transmyocardial Revascularization

The use of lasers to drill approximately one mm diameter holes. Directly into the walls of the heart to relieve severe angina when bypass is not an option

37

Valve replacement

A replacement of an abnormal or diseased valve with an artificial valve

38

Radiofrequency, or catheter, ablation

A procedure to correct arrhythmias by destroying a small amount of cardiac cells that are causing the abnormal heartbeat

39

Insertion of the left ventricular assist device, LVA D

Assist the hearts pumping chamber

40

Implantation of defibrillator or pacemaker

To maintain a normal heartbeat

41

Cardiomyoplasty

Skeletal muscle is wrapped around the heart and stimulated for contraction with the use of a pacemaker-like device to assist the heart and pumping

42

Heart transplant

Organ donation can be used when the heart is irreversibly damaged

43

Anticoagulant

Decrease the clotting ability of blood

44

Antiplatelet agents

Prevent blood clots

45

Angiotensin – converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors

Expand blood vessels to allow blood to flow more easily decreasing the workload of the heart

46

Angiotensin II receptor blockers

Prevent vessel constriction and decreased blood pressure

47

Beta – blockers

Decreased heart rate and cardiac output to decrease blood pressure and angina

48

Calcium channel blockers

Decreased blood pressure and angina and treat some arrhythmias

49

Diuretics

Decreased blood pressure and reduce edema

50

Vasodilators

Expand vessels to decrease angina

51

Digitalis preparations

Increase the force of the hearts contractions to decrease symptoms and some arrhythmias

52

Statins

Decreased cholesterol levels

53

Medication therapy for CAD can

Prevent A cardiac emergency or reduce the likelihood of experiencing another one

54

Occupational therapy evaluation process focuses on

What the client needs wants or is expected to do and analyzes what factors may impact desired occupational performance

55

occupational focused assessments (8)

1. Role checklist
2. Occupational performance history interview II (OPHI-II)
3. Occupational self-assessment
4. Performance assessment of self-care skills (PASS)
5. Canadian occupational performance measure (COPM)
6. Short form – 36 (SF-36)
7. Activity card sort (ACS)
8. Reintegration to normal living (RNL)

56

Client factor assessments (5)

1. Beck Depression inventory – II
2. Borg rating of perceived exertion (RPE)
3. Measure of pain
4. Measure of muscle strength
5. Monitoring of vital signs

57

Occupational therapy evaluations for cardiac conditions entails

Occupational focused assessments followed by specific evaluations of the potential impact of cardiac conditions on occupational performance

58

Occupational therapist should take precautions to prevent_________of the client with cardiac conditions

Over exertion

59

When taking care of a client with cardiac conditions the occupational therapist should monitor (2)

1. Heart rate
2. blood pressure regularly

60

Occupational therapy interventions for clients with cardiac conditions (7)

1. Teach energy conservation
2. Retain ADLs by grading activities to optimize participation without excess strain
3. Environment adoption
4. Educate client and family of risk factors of condition and measures to stay healthy and functional
5. Lifestyle Modifications by ID knew an alternate occupations without cardiac stress
6. Medication management
7. Recommendation of support groups and resources within the community

61

The number of people living with HD is increasing which means the need for_______is increasing

Lifestyle OT's

62

Community-based group sessions assist in

Transitions to home and community dwelling post in hospital rehab

63

Interdisciplinary cardiac rehab decreases

Cardiovascular related deaths which increases the quality of life

64

Increasing function in occupations means (3)

Decrease in the hospital stay
increasing independence increased rate of returning to work