Final Exam Review: Review Enteral/Parenteral Notes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Final Exam Review: Review Enteral/Parenteral Notes Deck (18):

What are the two major routes of nutrition administration?

Enteral and Parental


Enteral Feeding Types

Oral or PO diet (PO means by mouth), PO diet with nutritional supplementation, Tube feeding


Liquid Diet types

Oral or PO diet; 1) Clear Diet: (minimal digestion and stimulation of the GI tract), Used before or after surgery, juices 2) Full Liquid Diet: Transition between clear liquids and solid food, transition is met with some discomfort (lactose, osmolality change)


PO Diet with Supplements (Purpose, Challenge, Examples)

Type of Enteral Nutrition Type: Purpose - increasing nutrient density by adding calories and/or protein; Challenge - timing supplements with meals so that they really are supplements Examples: Liquid meal replacement formulas (Ensure, boost) or high energy/protein bars


Types of Tube Feedings

Gastric: NG (Nasogastric), Gastrostomy; or Small Intestine: Nasojejunal (NJT), Nasoduodenal (NDT), or jejunostomy


Which type of MNT is better? Enteral Nutrition or Parenteral Nutrition

Enteral Nutrition.


Benefits of Enteral Nutrition (Most important)

1) Absorption of nutrients by the portal system 2) Maintains gut integrity 3) Maintains Gut Associated Lymphoid Tissue (GALT) 4) May protect against the translocation of bacteria into systemic circulation


How does Enteral nutrition therapy maintain gut integrity and GALT?

Promotes mucosal cell turnover and renewal, whereas parenteral nutrition promotes mucosal and villous atrophy. Maintenance also is required for GALT structure and function


Other benefits of Enteral nutrition

1) wound healing 2) immunological function 3) hyperglycemia 4) More convenient less expensive


Considerations for tube feeding

route of administration, administration technique, product selection


Routes of administration

Nasoenteric (gastric and intestinal) ; and gastric/duodenal/jejunual


Determination of route

1) Length of MNT 2) Aspiration Risk 3) Patient's digestion and absorption status 4) If surgery is planned 5) Formula viscosity and volume


Benefits of feeding into the stomach

1) Able to accept high osmotic loads w/o cramping, distension, vomiting, diarrhea, or fluid/electrolyte shifts 2) Large reservoir capacity and readily accepts intermittent/bolus feedings


Benefits of feeding into the small intestine

Less risk of aspiration


Benefits of feeding beyond ligament of trietz

Lowest risk of aspiration


Complications of nasoenteric tubes

1) Sore throat 2) Pressure necrosis 3) Sinusitis 4) Mucosal ulceration 5) Abscess formation 6) Perforation


Tube Feeding Syndrome

hyperosmolar/non-ketoic dehydration; need to monitor patient's hydration status


Lab tests for tube feeding syndrome

1 ) Monitor for hypophosphatemia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, fluid overload, congestive heart failure, and hyperglycemia 2) Initial PN infusion should aim to meet 75-100% of BEE (not total energy needs) and be advanced slowly 3) Electrolytes and minerals administered as needed

Decks in NUTR 450 Medical Nutrition Therapy I Class (36):